Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/621770
Title:
Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting
Authors:
van Katwijk, Marieke M.; Thorhaug, Anitra; Marbà, Núria; Orth, Robert J.; Duarte, Carlos M. ( 0000-0002-1213-1361 ) ; Kendrick, Gary A.; Althuizen, Inge H. J.; Balestri, Elena; Bernard, Guillaume; Cambridge, Marion L.; Cunha, Alexandra; Durance, Cynthia; Giesen, Wim; Han, Qiuying; Hosokawa, Shinya; Kiswara, Wawan; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Lardicci, Claudio; Lee, Kun-Seop; Meinesz, Alexandre; Nakaoka, Masahiro; O'Brien, Katherine R.; Paling, Erik I.; Pickerell, Chris; Ransijn, Aryan M. A.; Verduin, Jennifer J.
Abstract:
In coastal and estuarine systems, foundation species like seagrasses, mangroves, saltmarshes or corals provide important ecosystem services. Seagrasses are globally declining and their reintroduction has been shown to restore ecosystem functions. However, seagrass restoration is often challenging, given the dynamic and stressful environment that seagrasses often grow in. From our world-wide meta-analysis of seagrass restoration trials (1786 trials), we describe general features and best practice for seagrass restoration. We confirm that removal of threats is important prior to replanting. Reduced water quality (mainly eutrophication), and construction activities led to poorer restoration success than, for instance, dredging, local direct impact and natural causes. Proximity to and recovery of donor beds were positively correlated with trial performance. Planting techniques can influence restoration success. The meta-analysis shows that both trial survival and seagrass population growth rate in trials that survived are positively affected by the number of plants or seeds initially transplanted. This relationship between restoration scale and restoration success was not related to trial characteristics of the initial restoration. The majority of the seagrass restoration trials have been very small, which may explain the low overall trial survival rate (i.e. estimated 37%). Successful regrowth of the foundation seagrass species appears to require crossing a minimum threshold of reintroduced individuals. Our study provides the first global field evidence for the requirement of a critical mass for recovery, which may also hold for other foundation species showing strong positive feedback to a dynamic environment. Synthesis and applications. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting increases trial survival - large numbers ensure the spread of risks, which is needed to overcome high natural variability. Secondly, a large-scale trial increases population growth rate by enhancing self-sustaining feedback, which is generally found in foundation species in stressful environments such as seagrass beds. Thus, by careful site selection and applying appropriate techniques, spreading of risks and enhancing self-sustaining feedback in concert increase success of seagrass restoration. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting increases trial survival - large numbers ensure the spread of risks, which is needed to overcome high natural variability. Secondly, a large-scale trial increases population growth rate by enhancing self-sustaining feedback, which is generally found in foundation species in stressful environments such as seagrass beds. Thus, by careful site selection and applying appropriate techniques, spreading of risks and enhancing self-sustaining feedback in concert increase success of seagrass restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.
KAUST Department:
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Van Katwijk MM, Thorhaug A, Marbà N, Orth RJ, Duarte CM, et al. (2015) Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 567–578. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12562.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Journal:
Journal of Applied Ecology
Issue Date:
28-Oct-2015
DOI:
10.1111/1365-2664.12562
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0021-8901
Sponsors:
We thank Prof. dr. G. Borm, Dr. J. C. M. Hendriks and Prof. dr. P. Herman for thorough statistical advice and stimulating discussions, Dr. L. Hanssen for inspiring feedback during all phases of the research, C. Belaire, Dr. I. Yasir and R. Hudson for providing data and K. Giesen, C. Gadouillet and N. Krupski for entering data. A. T. was funded by Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation grants. N. M. was supported by a Gledden Fellowship from the Institute of Advanced Studies of the University of Western Australia. N. M. C. M. D and A. C. were supported by Biomares contract number LIFE06 NAT/PT/000192. N. M. and C. M. D. were supported by Opera (FP7, contract number 308393). C. P. and the Cornell Cooperative Extension Marine Program are funded in part by County Executive Steve Bellone and the Suffolk County Legislature, Hauppauge, New York. E. B. and C. L. were funded by University of Pisa (Lardicci 308/ex60% 2010). M. L. C and G. A. K were supported by ARC Linkage Grants (LP130100155, LP0454138). This paper is Contribution No. 3495 of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary. This is a contribution to the CSIRO Marine and Coastal Carbon Biogeochemistry Flagship Cluster.
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorvan Katwijk, Marieke M.en
dc.contributor.authorThorhaug, Anitraen
dc.contributor.authorMarbà, Núriaen
dc.contributor.authorOrth, Robert J.en
dc.contributor.authorDuarte, Carlos M.en
dc.contributor.authorKendrick, Gary A.en
dc.contributor.authorAlthuizen, Inge H. J.en
dc.contributor.authorBalestri, Elenaen
dc.contributor.authorBernard, Guillaumeen
dc.contributor.authorCambridge, Marion L.en
dc.contributor.authorCunha, Alexandraen
dc.contributor.authorDurance, Cynthiaen
dc.contributor.authorGiesen, Wimen
dc.contributor.authorHan, Qiuyingen
dc.contributor.authorHosokawa, Shinyaen
dc.contributor.authorKiswara, Wawanen
dc.contributor.authorKomatsu, Teruhisaen
dc.contributor.authorLardicci, Claudioen
dc.contributor.authorLee, Kun-Seopen
dc.contributor.authorMeinesz, Alexandreen
dc.contributor.authorNakaoka, Masahiroen
dc.contributor.authorO'Brien, Katherine R.en
dc.contributor.authorPaling, Erik I.en
dc.contributor.authorPickerell, Chrisen
dc.contributor.authorRansijn, Aryan M. A.en
dc.contributor.authorVerduin, Jennifer J.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-03T13:24:34Z-
dc.date.available2016-11-03T13:24:34Z-
dc.date.issued2015-10-28en
dc.identifier.citationVan Katwijk MM, Thorhaug A, Marbà N, Orth RJ, Duarte CM, et al. (2015) Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting. Journal of Applied Ecology 53: 567–578. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12562.en
dc.identifier.issn0021-8901en
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/1365-2664.12562en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/621770-
dc.description.abstractIn coastal and estuarine systems, foundation species like seagrasses, mangroves, saltmarshes or corals provide important ecosystem services. Seagrasses are globally declining and their reintroduction has been shown to restore ecosystem functions. However, seagrass restoration is often challenging, given the dynamic and stressful environment that seagrasses often grow in. From our world-wide meta-analysis of seagrass restoration trials (1786 trials), we describe general features and best practice for seagrass restoration. We confirm that removal of threats is important prior to replanting. Reduced water quality (mainly eutrophication), and construction activities led to poorer restoration success than, for instance, dredging, local direct impact and natural causes. Proximity to and recovery of donor beds were positively correlated with trial performance. Planting techniques can influence restoration success. The meta-analysis shows that both trial survival and seagrass population growth rate in trials that survived are positively affected by the number of plants or seeds initially transplanted. This relationship between restoration scale and restoration success was not related to trial characteristics of the initial restoration. The majority of the seagrass restoration trials have been very small, which may explain the low overall trial survival rate (i.e. estimated 37%). Successful regrowth of the foundation seagrass species appears to require crossing a minimum threshold of reintroduced individuals. Our study provides the first global field evidence for the requirement of a critical mass for recovery, which may also hold for other foundation species showing strong positive feedback to a dynamic environment. Synthesis and applications. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting increases trial survival - large numbers ensure the spread of risks, which is needed to overcome high natural variability. Secondly, a large-scale trial increases population growth rate by enhancing self-sustaining feedback, which is generally found in foundation species in stressful environments such as seagrass beds. Thus, by careful site selection and applying appropriate techniques, spreading of risks and enhancing self-sustaining feedback in concert increase success of seagrass restoration. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting increases trial survival - large numbers ensure the spread of risks, which is needed to overcome high natural variability. Secondly, a large-scale trial increases population growth rate by enhancing self-sustaining feedback, which is generally found in foundation species in stressful environments such as seagrass beds. Thus, by careful site selection and applying appropriate techniques, spreading of risks and enhancing self-sustaining feedback in concert increase success of seagrass restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.en
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank Prof. dr. G. Borm, Dr. J. C. M. Hendriks and Prof. dr. P. Herman for thorough statistical advice and stimulating discussions, Dr. L. Hanssen for inspiring feedback during all phases of the research, C. Belaire, Dr. I. Yasir and R. Hudson for providing data and K. Giesen, C. Gadouillet and N. Krupski for entering data. A. T. was funded by Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation grants. N. M. was supported by a Gledden Fellowship from the Institute of Advanced Studies of the University of Western Australia. N. M. C. M. D and A. C. were supported by Biomares contract number LIFE06 NAT/PT/000192. N. M. and C. M. D. were supported by Opera (FP7, contract number 308393). C. P. and the Cornell Cooperative Extension Marine Program are funded in part by County Executive Steve Bellone and the Suffolk County Legislature, Hauppauge, New York. E. B. and C. L. were funded by University of Pisa (Lardicci 308/ex60% 2010). M. L. C and G. A. K were supported by ARC Linkage Grants (LP130100155, LP0454138). This paper is Contribution No. 3495 of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary. This is a contribution to the CSIRO Marine and Coastal Carbon Biogeochemistry Flagship Cluster.en
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwellen
dc.subjectAllee effecten
dc.subjectCoastal ecosystemsen
dc.subjectEcosystem recoveryen
dc.subjectGlobal restoration trajectoriesen
dc.subjectPositive feedbacken
dc.subjectSeagrass mitigationen
dc.subjectSeagrass rehabilitationen
dc.titleGlobal analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale plantingen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Applied Ecologyen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Environmental Science; Faculty of Science; Institute for Water and Wetland Research; Radboud University Nijmegen; Heyendaalseweg 135 6525 AJ Nijmegen The Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionGreeley Laboratories; Institute for Sustainable Forestry; School of Forestry and Environmental Studies; Yale University; Prospect St New Haven CT 06511 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Global Change Research; IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats; C/Miguel Marqués 21 07190 Esporles Spainen
dc.contributor.institutionVirginia Institute of Marine Science; College of William & Mary; P.O. Box 1346 Gloucester Point VA 23062 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionThe UWA Oceans Institute and School of Plant Biology; University of Western Australia; 35 Stirling Highway Crawley 6009 WA Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionDipartimento di Biologia; Pisa University; Via Derna 1 56126 Pisa Italyen
dc.contributor.institutionGIPREB (Gestion Intégrée pour la Prospective et la Réhabilitation de l'Etang de Berre) 13 Cours Mirabeau; 13130 Berre-l’Étang Franceen
dc.contributor.institutionCentro de Ciências do Mar (CCMAR); Edificio 7; Universidade do Algarve; Campus de Gambelas 8005-139 Faro Portugalen
dc.contributor.institutionPrecision Identification; 3622 West 3rd Avenue Vancouver BC V6R 1L9 Canadaen
dc.contributor.institutionEuroconsult Mott MacDonald; P.O. Box 441 6800 AK Arnhem The Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionKey Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation; Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes; YICCAS; Yantai Shandong 264003 Chinaen
dc.contributor.institutionMarine Environmental Information Group; Port and Airport Research Institute; Nagase Yokosuka Kanagawa 239-0826 Japanen
dc.contributor.institutionResearch Centre for Oceanography; Indonesian Institute of Sciences; Jl. Pasir Putih No. 1, Ancol, Timur Jakarta Utara 14430 Indonesiaen
dc.contributor.institutionAtmosphere and Ocean Research Institute; University of Tokyo; 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha Kashiwa 277-8564 Japanen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biological Sciences; Pusan National University; Pusan 609-735 Koreaen
dc.contributor.institutionEA ECOMERS 4228; University Nice Sophia Antipolis; F-06108 Nice 2 Franceen
dc.contributor.institutionAkkeshi Marine Station; Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere; Hokkaido University; Akkeshi Hokkaido 088-1113 Japanen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Chemical Engineering; The University of Queensland; St Lucia Qld 4072 Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionIchthys Onshore LNG; 11/14 Winnellie Road Winnellie NT 0820 Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionMarine Program; Cornell Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County; 423 Griffing Avenue, Suite 100 Riverhead NY 11901 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Veterinary and Life Sciences; Environmental and Conservation Sciences; Murdoch University; South Street Murdoch 6150 Perth WA Australiaen
kaust.authorDuarte, Carlos M.en
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