Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/609457
Title:
Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia
Authors:
Jadoon, Khan; Al-Mashharawi, Samir; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T. ( 0000-0001-7532-1587 ) ; Missimer, Thomas
Abstract:
Wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration) during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m below the surface. The geology surrounding the fluvial system at Wadi Qidayd consists of pelitic Precambrian rocks that contribute sediments ranging in size from mud to boulders to the alluvium. Sediments within the wadi channel consist of fining upward, downstream-dipping beds, causing channel floodwaters to pass through several sediment sequences, including several mud layers, before it can reach the water table. Investigation of the wadi aquifer using field observation, geological characterization, water-level monitoring, geophysical profiles, and a hypothetical model suggests a critical water level has been reached that affects the recharge of the aquifer. The wetted front can no longer reach the water table due to the water uptake in the wetting process, downstream deflection by the clay layers, and re-emergence of water at the surface with subsequent direct and diffusive evaporative loss, and likely uptake by deep-rooted acacia trees. In many areas of the wadi system, recharge can now occur only along the channel perimeter via fractured rocks that are in direct horizontal hydraulic connection to the permeable beds above and below the water table.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination & Reuse Research Cntr; Department of Earth and Engineering Science
Citation:
Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia 2016, 8 (4):136 Water
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Journal:
Water
Issue Date:
7-Apr-2016
DOI:
10.3390/w8040136
Type:
Article
ISSN:
2073-4441
Sponsors:
The authors thank the Water Desalination and Reuse Center and the Department of Earth Science and Engineering for the use of field and laboratory equipment. Funding for this research was provided by the Center and Department and from discretionary faculty research funding.
Additional Links:
http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/8/4/136
Appears in Collections:
Articles

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorJadoon, Khanen
dc.contributor.authorAl-Mashharawi, Samiren
dc.contributor.authorHanafy, Sherifen
dc.contributor.authorSchuster, Gerard T.en
dc.contributor.authorMissimer, Thomasen
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-15T13:21:44Zen
dc.date.available2016-05-15T13:21:44Zen
dc.date.issued2016-04-07en
dc.identifier.citationAnthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia 2016, 8 (4):136 Wateren
dc.identifier.issn2073-4441en
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/w8040136en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/609457en
dc.description.abstractWadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration) during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m below the surface. The geology surrounding the fluvial system at Wadi Qidayd consists of pelitic Precambrian rocks that contribute sediments ranging in size from mud to boulders to the alluvium. Sediments within the wadi channel consist of fining upward, downstream-dipping beds, causing channel floodwaters to pass through several sediment sequences, including several mud layers, before it can reach the water table. Investigation of the wadi aquifer using field observation, geological characterization, water-level monitoring, geophysical profiles, and a hypothetical model suggests a critical water level has been reached that affects the recharge of the aquifer. The wetted front can no longer reach the water table due to the water uptake in the wetting process, downstream deflection by the clay layers, and re-emergence of water at the surface with subsequent direct and diffusive evaporative loss, and likely uptake by deep-rooted acacia trees. In many areas of the wadi system, recharge can now occur only along the channel perimeter via fractured rocks that are in direct horizontal hydraulic connection to the permeable beds above and below the water table.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors thank the Water Desalination and Reuse Center and the Department of Earth Science and Engineering for the use of field and laboratory equipment. Funding for this research was provided by the Center and Department and from discretionary faculty research funding.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMDPI AGen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/8/4/136en
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectwadi aquifersen
dc.subjectaquifer depletionen
dc.subjectchannel rechargeen
dc.subjectanthropogenic changesen
dc.subjectfractured rock aquiferen
dc.titleAnthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabiaen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination & Reuse Research Cntren
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Earth and Engineering Scienceen
dc.identifier.journalWateren
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistanen
dc.contributor.institutionU.A. Whitaker College of Engineering, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Boulevard South, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565, USAen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorJadoon, Khanen
kaust.authorAlmashharawi, Samiren
kaust.authorHanafy, Sherif M.en
kaust.authorSchuster, Gerard T.en
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