Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/598171
Title:
Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels
Authors:
Zhu, Xiuping; Yang, Wulin; Hatzell, Marta C.; Logan, Bruce E.
Abstract:
Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Citation:
Zhu X, Yang W, Hatzell MC, Logan BE (2014) Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels. Environ Sci Technol 48: 7157–7163. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es500909q.
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Journal:
Environmental Science & Technology
KAUST Grant Number:
KUS-I1-003-13
Issue Date:
17-Jun-2014
DOI:
10.1021/es500909q
PubMed ID:
24863559
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0013-936X; 1520-5851
Sponsors:
We thank Weihua He for help with hydrogel preparation. This research was supported by Award KUS-I1-003-13 from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).
Appears in Collections:
Publications Acknowledging KAUST Support

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Xiupingen
dc.contributor.authorYang, Wulinen
dc.contributor.authorHatzell, Marta C.en
dc.contributor.authorLogan, Bruce E.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-25T13:14:02Zen
dc.date.available2016-02-25T13:14:02Zen
dc.date.issued2014-06-17en
dc.identifier.citationZhu X, Yang W, Hatzell MC, Logan BE (2014) Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels. Environ Sci Technol 48: 7157–7163. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es500909q.en
dc.identifier.issn0013-936Xen
dc.identifier.issn1520-5851en
dc.identifier.pmid24863559en
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/es500909qen
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/598171en
dc.description.abstractSeveral technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.en
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank Weihua He for help with hydrogel preparation. This research was supported by Award KUS-I1-003-13 from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).en
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)en
dc.titleEnergy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogelsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental Science & Technologyen
dc.contributor.institutionPennsylvania State University, State College, United Statesen
kaust.grant.numberKUS-I1-003-13en

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