Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/594223
Title:
Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm
Authors:
Liu, G.; Bakker, G. L.; Li, S.; Vreeburg, J. H G; Verberk, J. Q J C; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; Van Dijk, J. C.
Abstract:
The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments inside loose deposits structures for bacteria to grow. Moreover, loose deposits protect the associated bacteria from disinfectants, and due to their mobility, the associated bacteria reach taps easily. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
Citation:
Liu G, Bakker GL, Li S, Vreeburg JHG, Verberk JQJC, et al. (2014) Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm. Environ Sci Technol 48: 5467–5476. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es5009467.
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Journal:
Environmental Science & Technology
Issue Date:
20-May-2014
DOI:
10.1021/es5009467
PubMed ID:
24766451
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0013-936X; 1520-5851
Sponsors:
We acknowledge support from the Chinese Scholarship Council (2008612022).
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorLiu, G.en
dc.contributor.authorBakker, G. L.en
dc.contributor.authorLi, S.en
dc.contributor.authorVreeburg, J. H Gen
dc.contributor.authorVerberk, J. Q J Cen
dc.contributor.authorMedema, G. J.en
dc.contributor.authorLiu, W. T.en
dc.contributor.authorVan Dijk, J. C.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-19T14:43:43Zen
dc.date.available2016-01-19T14:43:43Zen
dc.date.issued2014-05-20en
dc.identifier.citationLiu G, Bakker GL, Li S, Vreeburg JHG, Verberk JQJC, et al. (2014) Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm. Environ Sci Technol 48: 5467–5476. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es5009467.en
dc.identifier.issn0013-936Xen
dc.identifier.issn1520-5851en
dc.identifier.pmid24766451en
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/es5009467en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/594223en
dc.description.abstractThe current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments inside loose deposits structures for bacteria to grow. Moreover, loose deposits protect the associated bacteria from disinfectants, and due to their mobility, the associated bacteria reach taps easily. © 2014 American Chemical Society.en
dc.description.sponsorshipWe acknowledge support from the Chinese Scholarship Council (2008612022).en
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)en
dc.titlePyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilmen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental Science & Technologyen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionVitens Water Company, P.O. Box 1205, 8001 BE Zwolle, Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionKWR Watercycle Research Institute, P.O. Box 1072, 3430BB Nieuwegein, Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, United Statesen
kaust.authorLi, S.en

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