Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/593667
Title:
Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System
Authors:
Mughal, Iqra; Jadoon, Khan; Mai, Paul Martin ( 0000-0002-9744-4964 ) ; Al-Mashharawi, Samir; Missimer, Thomas
Abstract:
A component of designing a managed aquifer recharge system in a dune aquifer is the control of diffusive evaporative loss of water which is governed by the physical properties of the sediments and the position of the water table. A critical water table position is the “extinction depth”, below which no further loss of water occurs via diffusion. Field experiments were conducted to measure the extinction depth of sediments taken from a typical dune field in the region. The soil grain size characteristics, laboratory porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured. The sand is classified as well-sorted, very fine sand with a mean grain diameter of 0.15 mm. Soil moisture gradients and diffusion loss rates were measured using sensors in a non-weighing lysimeter that was placed below land surface. The sand was saturated carefully with water from the bottom to the top and was exposed to the natural climate for a period of about two months. The moisture gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement until extinction depth was reached at about 100 cm below surface after 56 days. Diurnal temperature changes were observed in the upper 75 cm of the column and were negligible at greater depth.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Earth Science and Engineering Program
Citation:
Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System 2015, 7 (12):6967 Water
Publisher:
MDPI AG
Journal:
Water
Issue Date:
10-Dec-2015
DOI:
10.3390/w7126669
Type:
Article
ISSN:
2073-4441
Additional Links:
http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/7/12/6669
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Earth Science and Engineering Program; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorMughal, Iqraen
dc.contributor.authorJadoon, Khanen
dc.contributor.authorMai, Paul Martinen
dc.contributor.authorAl-Mashharawi, Samiren
dc.contributor.authorMissimer, Thomasen
dc.date.accessioned2016-01-18T08:18:16Zen
dc.date.available2016-01-18T08:18:16Zen
dc.date.issued2015-12-10en
dc.identifier.citationExperimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System 2015, 7 (12):6967 Wateren
dc.identifier.issn2073-4441en
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/w7126669en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/593667en
dc.description.abstractA component of designing a managed aquifer recharge system in a dune aquifer is the control of diffusive evaporative loss of water which is governed by the physical properties of the sediments and the position of the water table. A critical water table position is the “extinction depth”, below which no further loss of water occurs via diffusion. Field experiments were conducted to measure the extinction depth of sediments taken from a typical dune field in the region. The soil grain size characteristics, laboratory porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured. The sand is classified as well-sorted, very fine sand with a mean grain diameter of 0.15 mm. Soil moisture gradients and diffusion loss rates were measured using sensors in a non-weighing lysimeter that was placed below land surface. The sand was saturated carefully with water from the bottom to the top and was exposed to the natural climate for a period of about two months. The moisture gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement until extinction depth was reached at about 100 cm below surface after 56 days. Diurnal temperature changes were observed in the upper 75 cm of the column and were negligible at greater depth.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMDPI AGen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/7/12/6669en
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectmanaged aquifer rechargeen
dc.subjectdiffusive evaporationen
dc.subjectdune aquifersen
dc.subjectextinction depthen
dc.titleExperimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR Systemen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.contributor.departmentEarth Science and Engineering Programen
dc.identifier.journalWateren
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionU. A. Whitaker College of Engineering, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Boulevard, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565, USAen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorMughal, Iqraen
kaust.authorJadoon, Khanen
kaust.authorMai, Paul Martinen
kaust.authorAlmashharawi, Samiren
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