On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/583289
Title:
On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea
Authors:
DiBattista, Joseph ( 0000-0002-5696-7574 ) ; Howard Choat, J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Lozano-Cortes, Diego ( 0000-0002-7046-7955 ) ; Myers, Robert F.; Paulay, Gustav; Rocha, Luiz A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Westneat, Mark W.; Berumen, Michael L. ( 0000-0003-2463-2742 )
Abstract:
Aim The geological and palaeo-climatic forces that produced the unique biodiversity in the Red Sea are a subject of vigorous debate. Here, we review evidence for and against the hypotheses that: (1) Red Sea fauna was extirpated during glacial cycles of the Pleistocene and (2) coral reef fauna found refuge within or just outside the Red Sea during low sea level stands when conditions were inhospitable. Location Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods We review the literature on palaeontological, geological, biological and genetic evidence that allow us to explore competing hypotheses on the origins and maintenance of shallow-water reef fauna in the Red Sea. Results Palaeontological (microfossil) evidence indicates that some areas of the central Red Sea were devoid of most plankton during low sea level stands due to hypersaline conditions caused by almost complete isolation from the Indian Ocean. However, two areas may have retained conditions adequate for survival: the Gulf of Aqaba and the southern Red Sea. In addition to isolation within the Red Sea, which separated the northern and southern faunas, a strong barrier may also operate in the region: the cold, nutrient-rich water upwelling at the boundary of the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Biological data are either inconclusive or support these putative barriers and refugia, but no data set, that we know of rejects them. Genetic evidence suggests that many endemic lineages diverged from their Indian Ocean counterparts long before the most recent glaciations and/or are restricted to narrow areas, especially in the northern Red Sea. Main conclusions High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients, circulation patterns and the constriction at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Endemics that evolved within the Red Sea basin had to survive glacial cycles in relatively low salinity refugia. It therefore appears that the unique conditions in the Red Sea, in addition to those characteristics of the Arabian Peninsula region as a whole, drive the divergence of populations via a combination of isolation and selection.
KAUST Department:
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Citation:
On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea 2015:n/a Journal of Biogeography
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Journal:
Journal of Biogeography
Issue Date:
19-Oct-2015
DOI:
10.1111/jbi.12631
Type:
Article
ISSN:
03050270
Additional Links:
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jbi.12631
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorDiBattista, Josephen
dc.contributor.authorHoward Choat, J.en
dc.contributor.authorGaither, Michelle R.en
dc.contributor.authorHobbs, Jean-Paul A.en
dc.contributor.authorLozano-Cortes, Diegoen
dc.contributor.authorMyers, Robert F.en
dc.contributor.authorPaulay, Gustaven
dc.contributor.authorRocha, Luiz A.en
dc.contributor.authorToonen, Robert J.en
dc.contributor.authorWestneat, Mark W.en
dc.contributor.authorBerumen, Michael L.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-07T09:50:38Zen
dc.date.available2015-12-07T09:50:38Zen
dc.date.issued2015-10-19en
dc.identifier.citationOn the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea 2015:n/a Journal of Biogeographyen
dc.identifier.issn03050270en
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/jbi.12631en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/583289en
dc.description.abstractAim The geological and palaeo-climatic forces that produced the unique biodiversity in the Red Sea are a subject of vigorous debate. Here, we review evidence for and against the hypotheses that: (1) Red Sea fauna was extirpated during glacial cycles of the Pleistocene and (2) coral reef fauna found refuge within or just outside the Red Sea during low sea level stands when conditions were inhospitable. Location Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods We review the literature on palaeontological, geological, biological and genetic evidence that allow us to explore competing hypotheses on the origins and maintenance of shallow-water reef fauna in the Red Sea. Results Palaeontological (microfossil) evidence indicates that some areas of the central Red Sea were devoid of most plankton during low sea level stands due to hypersaline conditions caused by almost complete isolation from the Indian Ocean. However, two areas may have retained conditions adequate for survival: the Gulf of Aqaba and the southern Red Sea. In addition to isolation within the Red Sea, which separated the northern and southern faunas, a strong barrier may also operate in the region: the cold, nutrient-rich water upwelling at the boundary of the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Biological data are either inconclusive or support these putative barriers and refugia, but no data set, that we know of rejects them. Genetic evidence suggests that many endemic lineages diverged from their Indian Ocean counterparts long before the most recent glaciations and/or are restricted to narrow areas, especially in the northern Red Sea. Main conclusions High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients, circulation patterns and the constriction at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Endemics that evolved within the Red Sea basin had to survive glacial cycles in relatively low salinity refugia. It therefore appears that the unique conditions in the Red Sea, in addition to those characteristics of the Arabian Peninsula region as a whole, drive the divergence of populations via a combination of isolation and selection.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwellen
dc.relation.urlhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jbi.12631en
dc.rightsThis is the peer reviewed version of the following article: DiBattista, J. D., Howard Choat, J., Gaither, M. R., Hobbs, J.-P. A., Lozano-Cortés, D. F., Myers, R. F., Paulay, G., Rocha, L. A., Toonen, R. J., Westneat, M. W. and Berumen, M. L. (2015), On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea. Journal of Biogeography., which has been published in final form at http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jbi.12631. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.en
dc.subjectArabian Peninsulaen
dc.subjectbiodiversityen
dc.subjectbiogeographical barriersen
dc.subjectcentre of endemismen
dc.subjectmarine biogeographyen
dc.subjectpalaeoclimateen
dc.subjectPleistoceneen
dc.subjectrefugiaen
dc.subjectspecies distributionen
dc.titleOn the origin of endemic species in the Red Seaen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Biogeographyen
dc.eprint.versionPost-printen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Marine and Tropical Biology; James Cook University; Townsville QLD 4811 Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Biological and Biomedical Sciences; Durham University; Durham DH1 3LE UKen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Environment and Agriculture; Curtin University; PO Box U1987 Perth WA 6845 Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionSeaclicks/Coral Graphics; Wellington FL 33411 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionFlorida Museum of Natural History; Gainesville FL 32611-7800 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionSection of Ichthyology; California Academy of Sciences; San Francisco CA 94118 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionHawai'i Institute of Marine Biology; Kāne'ohe HI 96744 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Organismal Biology and Anatomy; University of Chicago; Chicago IL 60637 USAen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorDiBattista, Josephen
kaust.authorLozano-Cortes, Diegoen
kaust.authorBerumen, Michael L.en
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