Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/581514
Title:
Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries
Authors:
Trippanera, D.; Ruch, Joel; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.
Abstract:
The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.
KAUST Department:
Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division
Citation:
Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries 2015:n/a Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Journal:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Issue Date:
22-Oct-2015
DOI:
10.1002/2014JB011850
Type:
Article
ISSN:
21699313
Additional Links:
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JB011850
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorTrippanera, D.en
dc.contributor.authorRuch, Joelen
dc.contributor.authorAcocella, V.en
dc.contributor.authorRivalta, E.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-11-01T11:10:34Zen
dc.date.available2015-11-01T11:10:34Zen
dc.date.issued2015-10-22en
dc.identifier.citationExperiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries 2015:n/a Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earthen
dc.identifier.issn21699313en
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/2014JB011850en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/581514en
dc.description.abstractThe shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwellen
dc.relation.urlhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/2014JB011850en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earthen
dc.subjectdike swarmen
dc.subjectsurface deformationen
dc.subjectdivergent plate boundariesen
dc.subjectanalogue modelsen
dc.titleExperiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundariesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earthen
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionScience Department; Roma Tre University; Rome Italyen
dc.contributor.institutionScience Department; Roma Tre University; Rome Italyen
dc.contributor.institutionScience Department; Roma Tre University; Rome Italyen
dc.contributor.institutionDeutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam; Potsdam Germanyen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorRuch, Joelen
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