Effects of nearshore evaporation rates on the design of seabed gallery intake systems for SWRO facilities located along the Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabia

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/579846
Title:
Effects of nearshore evaporation rates on the design of seabed gallery intake systems for SWRO facilities located along the Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabia
Authors:
Dehwah, Abdullah; Jadoon, Khan Z.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir; Missimer, Thomas M.
Abstract:
Feed water to seawater reverse osmosis desalination systems should have a constant salinity with minimal variation. Intake systems that extract water from shallow nearshore areas in arid regions can exhibit significant fluctuations in salinity caused by high rates of evaporation and lack of circulation. Such fluctuations in salinity could inhibit the design, construction, and operation of seabed gallery intake systems located in shallow nearshore areas, such as the Red Sea inner shelf. Water depths range from 0 to 2 m between the beach and the edge of the fringing reef in the optimal locations for the development of seabed gallery intakes along the coast of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia. The evaporation rate in this area is between 2 and 3 m per year. The bottom consists of mostly a marine hardground containing a thin veneer of unlithified sediment and no significant cover of corals or seagrass. The rather barren nature of the bottom suggests that periodic hypersalinity may contribute to the formation of hardgrounds on the bottom by causing supersaturation of the seawater with calcium carbonate and may limit the growth of corals and grasses. To assess the changes in salinity, a conceptual model was developed which assumes that a shallow circulation cell develops between the shoreline and deeper water offshore. Lower salinity seawater should migrate landward to replace water loss caused by evaporation with seaward moving of high-salinity water occurring along the bottom to balance the flow with ultimate mixing before the reef tract. To test this circulation pattern, a series of sensors were deployed to continuously monitor the water temperature, conductivity, and salinity at the surface and at the bottom during several periods of high air temperature. Surprisingly, the results show very little variation in salinity, despite the very high evaporation loss. The water salinity ranged between 39,000 and 40,000 mg/L with no diurnal variations of significance. Based on the monitoring and weather station data collected nearby, it appears that the predominant strong onshore wind, particularly during the afternoon and early evening, causes near-continuous mixing of the water between the reef tract and the shoreline. Therefore, the development of seabed gallery intake systems within the shallow water between 1 and 2 m of depth is feasible based on the measured salinity which is similar to that occurring further offshore in water depths between 2 and 20 m.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
Citation:
Effects of nearshore evaporation rates on the design of seabed gallery intake systems for SWRO facilities located along the Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabia 2015:1 Desalination and Water Treatment
Publisher:
Informa UK Limited
Journal:
Desalination and Water Treatment
Issue Date:
12-Oct-2015
DOI:
10.1080/19443994.2015.1098796
Type:
Article
ISSN:
1944-3994; 1944-3986
Additional Links:
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19443994.2015.1098796
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorDehwah, Abdullahen
dc.contributor.authorJadoon, Khan Z.en
dc.contributor.authorAl-Mashharawi, Samiren
dc.contributor.authorMissimer, Thomas M.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-10-18T14:47:27Zen
dc.date.available2015-10-18T14:47:27Zen
dc.date.issued2015-10-12en
dc.identifier.citationEffects of nearshore evaporation rates on the design of seabed gallery intake systems for SWRO facilities located along the Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabia 2015:1 Desalination and Water Treatmenten
dc.identifier.issn1944-3994en
dc.identifier.issn1944-3986en
dc.identifier.doi10.1080/19443994.2015.1098796en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/579846en
dc.description.abstractFeed water to seawater reverse osmosis desalination systems should have a constant salinity with minimal variation. Intake systems that extract water from shallow nearshore areas in arid regions can exhibit significant fluctuations in salinity caused by high rates of evaporation and lack of circulation. Such fluctuations in salinity could inhibit the design, construction, and operation of seabed gallery intake systems located in shallow nearshore areas, such as the Red Sea inner shelf. Water depths range from 0 to 2 m between the beach and the edge of the fringing reef in the optimal locations for the development of seabed gallery intakes along the coast of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia. The evaporation rate in this area is between 2 and 3 m per year. The bottom consists of mostly a marine hardground containing a thin veneer of unlithified sediment and no significant cover of corals or seagrass. The rather barren nature of the bottom suggests that periodic hypersalinity may contribute to the formation of hardgrounds on the bottom by causing supersaturation of the seawater with calcium carbonate and may limit the growth of corals and grasses. To assess the changes in salinity, a conceptual model was developed which assumes that a shallow circulation cell develops between the shoreline and deeper water offshore. Lower salinity seawater should migrate landward to replace water loss caused by evaporation with seaward moving of high-salinity water occurring along the bottom to balance the flow with ultimate mixing before the reef tract. To test this circulation pattern, a series of sensors were deployed to continuously monitor the water temperature, conductivity, and salinity at the surface and at the bottom during several periods of high air temperature. Surprisingly, the results show very little variation in salinity, despite the very high evaporation loss. The water salinity ranged between 39,000 and 40,000 mg/L with no diurnal variations of significance. Based on the monitoring and weather station data collected nearby, it appears that the predominant strong onshore wind, particularly during the afternoon and early evening, causes near-continuous mixing of the water between the reef tract and the shoreline. Therefore, the development of seabed gallery intake systems within the shallow water between 1 and 2 m of depth is feasible based on the measured salinity which is similar to that occurring further offshore in water depths between 2 and 20 m.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherInforma UK Limiteden
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19443994.2015.1098796en
dc.rightsThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.en
dc.subjectSeawater reverse osmosisen
dc.subjectSeabed gallery intakeen
dc.subjectNearshore circulationen
dc.subjectRed Seaen
dc.subjectSalinity variationen
dc.titleEffects of nearshore evaporation rates on the design of seabed gallery intake systems for SWRO facilities located along the Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabiaen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.identifier.journalDesalination and Water Treatmenten
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionU. A. Whitaker College of Engineering, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Boulevard South, Fort Myers, Florida 33965-6565, USAen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorDehwah, Abdullah H Aen
kaust.authorJadoon, Khan Z.en
kaust.authorAl-Mashharawi, Samiren
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