The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/575709
Title:
The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia
Authors:
Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F.; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jorg
Abstract:
Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Water Desalination & Reuse Research Cntr; Center for Desert Agriculture
Publisher:
Elsevier BV
Journal:
Science of The Total Environment
Issue Date:
Apr-2014
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.093
PubMed ID:
24531125
Type:
Article
ISSN:
00489697
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Center for Desert Agriculture; Center for Desert Agriculture; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorAlidina, Mazahiralien
dc.contributor.authorHoppe-Jones, Christianeen
dc.contributor.authorYoon, Minen
dc.contributor.authorHamadeh, Ahmed F.en
dc.contributor.authorLi, Dongen
dc.contributor.authorDrewes, Jorgen
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-24T08:36:18Zen
dc.date.available2015-08-24T08:36:18Zen
dc.date.issued2014-04en
dc.identifier.issn00489697en
dc.identifier.pmid24531125en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.093en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/575709en
dc.description.abstractEmerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.en
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.subjectEmerging trace organic chemicalsen
dc.subjectLiquid-chromatography mass-spectrometryen
dc.subjectSaudi Arabiaen
dc.subjectWater reuseen
dc.titleThe occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabiaen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Programen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination & Reuse Research Cntren
dc.contributor.departmentCenter for Desert Agricultureen
dc.identifier.journalScience of The Total Environmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUrban Water Systems Engineering, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germanyen
kaust.authorAlidina, Mazahiralien
kaust.authorHoppe-Jones, Christianeen
kaust.authorYoon, Minen
kaust.authorHamadeh, Ahmed F.en
kaust.authorLi, Dongen
kaust.authorDrewes, Jorgen

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