Regulation and function of DNA methylation in plants and animals

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/566024
Title:
Regulation and function of DNA methylation in plants and animals
Authors:
He, Xinjian; Chen, Taiping; Zhu, Jian-Kang
Abstract:
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark involved in diverse biological processes. In plants, DNA methylation can be established through the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, an RNA interference pathway for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), which requires 24-nt small interfering RNAs. In mammals, de novo DNA methylation occurs primarily at two developmental stages: during early embryogenesis and during gametogenesis. While it is not clear whether establishment of DNA methylation patterns in mammals involves RNA interference in general, de novo DNA methylation and suppression of transposons in germ cells require 24-32-nt piwi-interacting small RNAs. DNA methylation status is dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation reactions. In plants, active DNA demethylation relies on the repressor of silencing 1 family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases, which remove the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site, initiating a base excision repair (BER) pathway. In animals, multiple mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been proposed, including a deaminase- and DNA glycosylase-initiated BER pathway. New information concerning the effects of various histone modifications on the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation has broadened our understanding of the regulation of DNA methylation. The function of DNA methylation in plants and animals is also discussed in this review. © 2011 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.
KAUST Department:
Center for Desert Agriculture
Publisher:
Springer Nature
Journal:
Cell Research
Issue Date:
15-Feb-2011
DOI:
10.1038/cr.2011.23
PubMed ID:
21321601
PubMed Central ID:
PMC3152208
Type:
Article
ISSN:
10010602
Sponsors:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grants R01GM070795 and R01GM059138 to J-KZ.
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Center for Desert Agriculture

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorHe, Xinjianen
dc.contributor.authorChen, Taipingen
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Jian-Kangen
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-12T08:59:57Zen
dc.date.available2015-08-12T08:59:57Zen
dc.date.issued2011-02-15en
dc.identifier.issn10010602en
dc.identifier.pmid21321601en
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/cr.2011.23en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/566024en
dc.description.abstractDNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark involved in diverse biological processes. In plants, DNA methylation can be established through the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway, an RNA interference pathway for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), which requires 24-nt small interfering RNAs. In mammals, de novo DNA methylation occurs primarily at two developmental stages: during early embryogenesis and during gametogenesis. While it is not clear whether establishment of DNA methylation patterns in mammals involves RNA interference in general, de novo DNA methylation and suppression of transposons in germ cells require 24-32-nt piwi-interacting small RNAs. DNA methylation status is dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation reactions. In plants, active DNA demethylation relies on the repressor of silencing 1 family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases, which remove the 5-methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site, initiating a base excision repair (BER) pathway. In animals, multiple mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been proposed, including a deaminase- and DNA glycosylase-initiated BER pathway. New information concerning the effects of various histone modifications on the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation has broadened our understanding of the regulation of DNA methylation. The function of DNA methylation in plants and animals is also discussed in this review. © 2011 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grants R01GM070795 and R01GM059138 to J-KZ.en
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen
dc.subjectDNA demethylationen
dc.subjectDNA methylationen
dc.subjecthistone modificationsen
dc.subjectRNAen
dc.titleRegulation and function of DNA methylation in plants and animalsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentCenter for Desert Agricultureen
dc.identifier.journalCell Researchen
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3152208en
dc.contributor.institutionNational Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, Chinaen
dc.contributor.institutionDevelopmental and Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionHorticulture and Landscape Architecture Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, United Statesen
kaust.authorZhu, Jian-Kangen

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