Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/564174
Title:
Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques
Authors:
Hourani, Nadim ( 0000-0003-4272-5395 ) ; Muller, Hendrik; Adam, Frederick M.; Panda, Saroj K.; Witt, Matthias; Al-Hajji, Adnan A.; Sarathy, Mani ( 0000-0002-3975-6206 )
Abstract:
Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
KAUST Department:
Clean Combustion Research Center; Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division; Chemical and Biological Engineering Program
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Journal:
Energy & Fuels
Issue Date:
21-May-2015
DOI:
10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00038
Type:
Article
ISSN:
08870624
Sponsors:
We thank the Clean Combustion Research Center at KAUST and Fuel Technology Team at Saudi Aramco for funding this work under the FUELCOM program.
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division; Chemical and Biological Engineering Program; Clean Combustion Research Center

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorHourani, Nadimen
dc.contributor.authorMuller, Hendriken
dc.contributor.authorAdam, Frederick M.en
dc.contributor.authorPanda, Saroj K.en
dc.contributor.authorWitt, Matthiasen
dc.contributor.authorAl-Hajji, Adnan A.en
dc.contributor.authorSarathy, Manien
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-03T12:35:07Zen
dc.date.available2015-08-03T12:35:07Zen
dc.date.issued2015-05-21en
dc.identifier.issn08870624en
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00038en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/564174en
dc.description.abstractBase oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.en
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank the Clean Combustion Research Center at KAUST and Fuel Technology Team at Saudi Aramco for funding this work under the FUELCOM program.en
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)en
dc.titleStructural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniquesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentClean Combustion Research Centeren
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Divisionen
dc.contributor.departmentChemical and Biological Engineering Programen
dc.identifier.journalEnergy & Fuelsen
dc.contributor.institutionResearch and Development Center, Saudi Aramco, P.O. Box 62, Dhahran, Saudi Arabiaen
dc.contributor.institutionBruker Daltonik GmbH, Fahrenheitstrasse 4, Bremen, Germanyen
kaust.authorHourani, Nadimen
kaust.authorSarathy, Manien
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