Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/563903
Title:
Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies
Authors:
Ghaffour, Noreddine ( 0000-0003-2095-4736 ) ; Lattemann, Sabine; Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon ( 0000-0003-3930-4127 ) ; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Amy, Gary L.
Abstract:
Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group's contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Water Desalination & Reuse Research Cntr; Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Publisher:
Elsevier BV
Journal:
Applied Energy
Issue Date:
13-Apr-2014
DOI:
10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.033
Type:
Article
ISSN:
03062619
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorGhaffour, Noreddineen
dc.contributor.authorLattemann, Sabineen
dc.contributor.authorMissimer, Thomas M.en
dc.contributor.authorNg, Kim Choonen
dc.contributor.authorSinha, Shahnawazen
dc.contributor.authorAmy, Gary L.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-03T12:18:59Zen
dc.date.available2015-08-03T12:18:59Zen
dc.date.issued2014-04-13en
dc.identifier.issn03062619en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.033en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/563903en
dc.description.abstractGlobally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group's contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was submitted for publication in Journal of Applied Energy. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Applied Energy, 13 April 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.033en
dc.subjectCombined systemsen
dc.subjectEnvironmenten
dc.subjectGeothermal and wind energiesen
dc.subjectInnovative desalination technologiesen
dc.subjectSaudi Arabia (KSA)en
dc.subjectSolaren
dc.titleRenewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologiesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination & Reuse Research Cntren
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalApplied Energyen
dc.eprint.versionPre-printen
dc.contributor.institutionDME, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge CrescentSingapore, Singaporeen
kaust.authorGhaffour, Noreddineen
kaust.authorMissimer, Thomas M.en
kaust.authorSinha, Shahnawazen
kaust.authorAmy, Gary L.en
kaust.authorLattemann, Sabineen
kaust.authorNg, Kim Choonen
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