Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/563128
Title:
Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method
Authors:
Prest, Emmanuelle I E C; Hammes, Frederik A.; Kötzsch, Stefan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S. ( 0000-0003-2668-2057 )
Abstract:
Flow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Environmental Science and Engineering Program
Publisher:
Elsevier BV
Journal:
Water Research
Issue Date:
Dec-2013
DOI:
10.1016/j.watres.2013.07.051
PubMed ID:
24183559
Type:
Article
ISSN:
00431354
Sponsors:
The authors like to thank Evides Waterbedrijf for the fruitful discussions and their financial support, and Hansueli Weilenmann for his technical support.
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorPrest, Emmanuelle I E Cen
dc.contributor.authorHammes, Frederik A.en
dc.contributor.authorKötzsch, Stefanen
dc.contributor.authorvan Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.en
dc.contributor.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-03T11:36:25Zen
dc.date.available2015-08-03T11:36:25Zen
dc.date.issued2013-12en
dc.identifier.issn00431354en
dc.identifier.pmid24183559en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.watres.2013.07.051en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/563128en
dc.description.abstractFlow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors like to thank Evides Waterbedrijf for the fruitful discussions and their financial support, and Hansueli Weilenmann for his technical support.en
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.subject%HNAen
dc.subjectA.uen
dc.subjectAOCen
dc.subjectBiological stabilityen
dc.subjectDistribution networken
dc.subjectDrinking wateren
dc.subjectFCMen
dc.subjectFlow cytometry (FCM)en
dc.subjectHNAen
dc.subjectHouseholden
dc.subjectLNAen
dc.subjectLow and high nucleic acid (LNA and HNA) content bacteriaen
dc.subjectRSDen
dc.subjectTCCen
dc.titleMonitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric methoden
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Programen
dc.identifier.journalWater Researchen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628BCDelft, Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionEawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerlanden
dc.contributor.institutionWetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Agora 1, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden, Netherlandsen
kaust.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.en

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