Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/562578
Title:
Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions
Authors:
Steinmetz, Scott ( 0000-0003-1101-4662 ) ; Herrington, Jason S.; Winterrowd, Chris K.; Roberts, William L. ( 0000-0003-1999-2831 ) ; Wendt, Jost O L; Linak, William P.
Abstract:
Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic compounds, with emissions comparable to those from natural gas combustion. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KAUST Department:
Clean Combustion Research Center; Mechanical Engineering Program; Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division
Publisher:
Elsevier
Journal:
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue Date:
Jan-2013
DOI:
10.1016/j.proci.2012.07.050
Type:
Article
ISSN:
15407489
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division; Mechanical Engineering Program; Clean Combustion Research Center

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSteinmetz, Scotten
dc.contributor.authorHerrington, Jason S.en
dc.contributor.authorWinterrowd, Chris K.en
dc.contributor.authorRoberts, William L.en
dc.contributor.authorWendt, Jost O Len
dc.contributor.authorLinak, William P.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-03T10:43:30Zen
dc.date.available2015-08-03T10:43:30Zen
dc.date.issued2013-01en
dc.identifier.issn15407489en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.proci.2012.07.050en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/562578en
dc.description.abstractCrude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic compounds, with emissions comparable to those from natural gas combustion. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.en
dc.publisherElsevieren
dc.subjectAcrolein measurementsen
dc.subjectBio-fuelsen
dc.subjectEmission characterizationen
dc.subjectGlycerol combustionen
dc.subjectWaste fuelsen
dc.titleCrude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissionsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentClean Combustion Research Centeren
dc.contributor.departmentMechanical Engineering Programen
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalProceedings of the Combustion Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionNational Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency E305-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionARCADIS U.S. Inc., Durham, NC 27713, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionRestek Corporation, Bellefonte, PA 16823, United Statesen
kaust.authorRoberts, William L.en
kaust.authorSteinmetz, Scotten
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