Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/561429
Title:
Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents
Authors:
Krasner, Stuart W.; Westerhoff, Paul K.; Chen, Baiyang; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Amy, Gary L.
Abstract:
Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 μg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 μg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
KAUST Department:
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Journal:
Environmental Science and Technology
Issue Date:
Nov-2009
DOI:
10.1021/es901611m
PubMed ID:
19924963
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0013936X
Sponsors:
The authors thank the Awwa Research Foundation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for its financial, technical, and administrative assistance in funding and managing the project through which this information was discovered. The project manager was Alice Fulmer. The authors also acknowledge Zaid K. Chowdhury and Shahnawaz Sinha of Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. for setting up portions of the full-scale sampling survey. Thanks are given to the Metropolitan staff that conducted various analyses in support of this study. Finally, the participating utilities are acknowledged for their invaluable assistance and support.
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorKrasner, Stuart W.en
dc.contributor.authorWesterhoff, Paul K.en
dc.contributor.authorChen, Baiyangen
dc.contributor.authorRittmann, Bruce E.en
dc.contributor.authorAmy, Gary L.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-02T09:11:04Zen
dc.date.available2015-08-02T09:11:04Zen
dc.date.issued2009-11en
dc.identifier.issn0013936Xen
dc.identifier.pmid19924963en
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/es901611men
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/561429en
dc.description.abstractEffluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 μg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 μg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors thank the Awwa Research Foundation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for its financial, technical, and administrative assistance in funding and managing the project through which this information was discovered. The project manager was Alice Fulmer. The authors also acknowledge Zaid K. Chowdhury and Shahnawaz Sinha of Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. for setting up portions of the full-scale sampling survey. Thanks are given to the Metropolitan staff that conducted various analyses in support of this study. Finally, the participating utilities are acknowledged for their invaluable assistance and support.en
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Societyen
dc.titleOccurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluentsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental Science and Technologyen
dc.contributor.institutionWater Quality Laboratory, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, 700 Moreno Avenue, La Verne, CA 91750, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil, Environmental and Sustainable Engineering, Engineering Center (G-Wing), Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5306, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionCenter for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 875701, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionChinese Environmental Scholars and Professionals Network, 11900 Stonehollow Drive, Austin, TX 78758, United Statesen
kaust.authorAmy, Gary L.en

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