Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/556725
Title:
Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS
Authors:
Metzger, Sabrina; Jonsson, Sigurjon ( 0000-0001-5378-7079 )
Abstract:
In North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.
KAUST Department:
Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division
Citation:
Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS 2014, 634:127 Tectonophysics
Publisher:
Elsevier BV
Journal:
Tectonophysics
Issue Date:
20-Aug-2014
DOI:
10.1016/j.tecto.2014.07.027
Type:
Article
ISSN:
00401951
Additional Links:
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0040195114004077
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorMetzger, Sabrinaen
dc.contributor.authorJonsson, Sigurjonen
dc.date.accessioned2015-06-10T18:42:45Zen
dc.date.available2015-06-10T18:42:45Zen
dc.date.issued2014-08-20en
dc.identifier.citationPlate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS 2014, 634:127 Tectonophysicsen
dc.identifier.issn00401951en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.tecto.2014.07.027en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/556725en
dc.description.abstractIn North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.en
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.relation.urlhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0040195114004077en
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Tectonophysics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Tectonophysics, 20 August 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2014.07.027en
dc.subjectInSARen
dc.subjectTime-series analysisen
dc.subjectInterseismic deformationen
dc.subjectTransform faultsen
dc.subjectKinematics of crustal and mantle deformationen
dc.subjectNorthern Volcanic Zoneen
dc.titlePlate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPSen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalTectonophysicsen
dc.eprint.versionPost-printen
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute of Geophysics, ETH Zürich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zürich, Switzerlanden
dc.contributor.institutionGerman Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germanyen
kaust.authorJonsson, Sigurjonen
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