Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/556228
Title:
Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories
Authors:
Arminjon, Mathieu; Preissmann, Delphine; Chmetz, Florian; Duraku, Andrea; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J. ( 0000-0002-6678-320X )
Abstract:
Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.
KAUST Department:
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Citation:
Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories 2015, 6 Frontiers in Psychology
Publisher:
Frontiers Media SA
Journal:
Frontiers in Psychology
Issue Date:
26-May-2015
DOI:
10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00650
Type:
Article
ISSN:
1664-1078
Additional Links:
http://journal.frontiersin.org/Article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00650/abstract
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorArminjon, Mathieuen
dc.contributor.authorPreissmann, Delphineen
dc.contributor.authorChmetz, Florianen
dc.contributor.authorDuraku, Andreaen
dc.contributor.authorAnsermet, Françoisen
dc.contributor.authorMagistretti, Pierre J.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-06-04T07:49:52Zen
dc.date.available2015-06-04T07:49:52Zen
dc.date.issued2015-05-26en
dc.identifier.citationEmbodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories 2015, 6 Frontiers in Psychologyen
dc.identifier.issn1664-1078en
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00650en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/556228en
dc.description.abstractSince Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.en
dc.publisherFrontiers Media SAen
dc.relation.urlhttp://journal.frontiersin.org/Article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00650/abstracten
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectreconsolidationen
dc.subjectfacial feedback hypothesisen
dc.subjectembodied cognitionen
dc.subjectmemoryen
dc.subjectsomatic markersen
dc.titleEmbodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memoriesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in Psychologyen
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionAgalma Foundation, Geneva, Switzerlanden
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerlanden
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute of Psychology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerlanden
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Psychiatric Neurosciences, Lausanne University Hospital Center, Lausanne, Switzerlanden
dc.contributor.institutionBrain Mind Institute, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerlanden
kaust.authorMagistretti, Pierre J.en
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