Continuous acoustic studies of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus reveal flexible behavior

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/555781
Title:
Continuous acoustic studies of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus reveal flexible behavior
Authors:
Solberg, I; Klevjer, TA; Kaartvedt, Stein ( 0000-0002-8793-2948 )
Abstract:
The clupeid fish Sprattus sprattus was studied in a 150 m deep Norwegian fjord throughout an entire overwintering period during which the fjord froze over and a major water renewal occurred. A bottom-mounted (upward-facing) echosounder provided continuous high-resolution data and enabled studies of swimming speed and behavior of individual sprat in addition to population behavior. The continuous acoustic studies were supplemented with intermittent field campaigns. The sprat displayed different behavioral modes with changing environmental conditions. During the first part of the winter, the majority of the population occurred in deep waters during both day and night, yet exhibited a shallower night-time distribution. Individual sprat swam alternately up and down, a ‘rise and sink’ behavior likely a compensation for negative buoyancy because of swim bladder compression. Because feeding was negligible in deep waters, the swimming pattern was not inferred as prey search behavior. Another part of the population schooled at shallower depths during the day and carried out vertical migration to upper waters at night. However, individuals were observed as they switched between these behavioral groups. A sudden change in both swimming behavior and vertical distribution occurred as the fjord became ice covered. Near-bottom ‘rise and sink’ swimming was replaced by schooling in mid-water during the day, and the sprat aggregated in dense layers near the surface at night. We suggest that the ice made the sprat shift their antipredator strategy from hiding at depth to hiding in schools in the darker waters below the ice. This long-term acoustic study has shown that sprat have a flexible behavioral repertoire, displaying different overwintering strategies within a population, depending on environmental conditions.
KAUST Department:
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Continuous acoustic studies of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus reveal flexible behavior 2012, 464:245 Marine Ecology Progress Series
Publisher:
Inter-Research Science Center
Journal:
Marine Ecology Progress Series
Issue Date:
19-Sep-2012
DOI:
10.3354/meps09877
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0171-8630; 1616-1599
Additional Links:
http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v464/p245-256/
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC); Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSolberg, Ien
dc.contributor.authorKlevjer, TAen
dc.contributor.authorKaartvedt, Steinen
dc.date.accessioned2015-05-26T07:26:46Zen
dc.date.available2015-05-26T07:26:46Zen
dc.date.issued2012-09-19en
dc.identifier.citationContinuous acoustic studies of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus reveal flexible behavior 2012, 464:245 Marine Ecology Progress Seriesen
dc.identifier.issn0171-8630en
dc.identifier.issn1616-1599en
dc.identifier.doi10.3354/meps09877en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/555781en
dc.description.abstractThe clupeid fish Sprattus sprattus was studied in a 150 m deep Norwegian fjord throughout an entire overwintering period during which the fjord froze over and a major water renewal occurred. A bottom-mounted (upward-facing) echosounder provided continuous high-resolution data and enabled studies of swimming speed and behavior of individual sprat in addition to population behavior. The continuous acoustic studies were supplemented with intermittent field campaigns. The sprat displayed different behavioral modes with changing environmental conditions. During the first part of the winter, the majority of the population occurred in deep waters during both day and night, yet exhibited a shallower night-time distribution. Individual sprat swam alternately up and down, a ‘rise and sink’ behavior likely a compensation for negative buoyancy because of swim bladder compression. Because feeding was negligible in deep waters, the swimming pattern was not inferred as prey search behavior. Another part of the population schooled at shallower depths during the day and carried out vertical migration to upper waters at night. However, individuals were observed as they switched between these behavioral groups. A sudden change in both swimming behavior and vertical distribution occurred as the fjord became ice covered. Near-bottom ‘rise and sink’ swimming was replaced by schooling in mid-water during the day, and the sprat aggregated in dense layers near the surface at night. We suggest that the ice made the sprat shift their antipredator strategy from hiding at depth to hiding in schools in the darker waters below the ice. This long-term acoustic study has shown that sprat have a flexible behavioral repertoire, displaying different overwintering strategies within a population, depending on environmental conditions.en
dc.publisherInter-Research Science Centeren
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v464/p245-256/en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Marine Ecology Progress Seriesen
dc.subjectSpraten
dc.subjectOverwinteringen
dc.subject‘Rise and sink’ swimmingen
dc.subjectSchoolingen
dc.subjectIce coveren
dc.titleContinuous acoustic studies of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus reveal flexible behavioren
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalMarine Ecology Progress Seriesen
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Oslo, Department of Biology, PO Box 1066 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norwayen
kaust.authorSolberg, Ingriden
kaust.authorKlevjer, Thor Aleksanderen
kaust.authorKaartvedt, Steinen
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