Differentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/552186
Title:
Differentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran
Authors:
Landgraf, A.; Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Ballato, P.; Strecker, M. R.; Schildgen, T. F.; Friedrich, A. M.; Tabatabaei, S. H.
Abstract:
The tectonically driven growth of mountains reflects the characteristics of the underlying fault systems and the applied tectonic forces. Over time, fault networks might be relatively static, but stress conditions could change and result in variations in fault slip orientation. Such a tectonic landscape would transition from a “simple” to a “composite” state: the topography of simple landscapes is correlated with a single set of tectonic boundary conditions, while composite landscapes contain inherited topography due to earlier deformation under different boundary conditions. We use fault interaction modeling to compare vertical displacement fields with topographic metrics to differentiate the two types of landscapes. By successively rotating the axis of maximum horizontal stress, we produce a suite of vertical displacement fields for comparison with real landscapes. We apply this model to a transpressional duplex in the south central Alborz Mountains of Iran, where NW oriented compression was superseded by neotectonic NE compression. The consistency between the modeled displacement field and real landforms indicates that the duplex topography is mostly compatible with the modern boundary conditions, but might include a small remnant from the earlier deformation phase. Our approach is applicable for various tectonic settings and represents an approach to identify the changing boundary conditions that produce composite landscapes. It may be particularly useful for identifying changes that occurred in regions where river profiles may no longer record a signal of the change or where the spatial pattern of uplift is complex.
KAUST Department:
Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division
Citation:
Differentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran 2013, 118 (3):1792 Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface
Journal:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface
Issue Date:
Sep-2013
DOI:
10.1002/jgrf.20109
Type:
Article
ISSN:
21699003
Additional Links:
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jgrf.20109
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorLandgraf, A.en
dc.contributor.authorZielke, Olafen
dc.contributor.authorArrowsmith, J. R.en
dc.contributor.authorBallato, P.en
dc.contributor.authorStrecker, M. R.en
dc.contributor.authorSchildgen, T. F.en
dc.contributor.authorFriedrich, A. M.en
dc.contributor.authorTabatabaei, S. H.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-05-04T16:43:26Zen
dc.date.available2015-05-04T16:43:26Zen
dc.date.issued2013-09en
dc.identifier.citationDifferentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran 2013, 118 (3):1792 Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surfaceen
dc.identifier.issn21699003en
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/jgrf.20109en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/552186en
dc.description.abstractThe tectonically driven growth of mountains reflects the characteristics of the underlying fault systems and the applied tectonic forces. Over time, fault networks might be relatively static, but stress conditions could change and result in variations in fault slip orientation. Such a tectonic landscape would transition from a “simple” to a “composite” state: the topography of simple landscapes is correlated with a single set of tectonic boundary conditions, while composite landscapes contain inherited topography due to earlier deformation under different boundary conditions. We use fault interaction modeling to compare vertical displacement fields with topographic metrics to differentiate the two types of landscapes. By successively rotating the axis of maximum horizontal stress, we produce a suite of vertical displacement fields for comparison with real landscapes. We apply this model to a transpressional duplex in the south central Alborz Mountains of Iran, where NW oriented compression was superseded by neotectonic NE compression. The consistency between the modeled displacement field and real landforms indicates that the duplex topography is mostly compatible with the modern boundary conditions, but might include a small remnant from the earlier deformation phase. Our approach is applicable for various tectonic settings and represents an approach to identify the changing boundary conditions that produce composite landscapes. It may be particularly useful for identifying changes that occurred in regions where river profiles may no longer record a signal of the change or where the spatial pattern of uplift is complex.en
dc.relation.urlhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jgrf.20109en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surfaceen
dc.titleDifferentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iranen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surfaceen
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionInstitut für Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften; Universität Potsdam; Potsdam Germanyen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Earth and Space Exploration; Arizona State University; Tempe Arizona USAen
dc.contributor.institutionInstitut für Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften; Universität Potsdam; Potsdam Germanyen
dc.contributor.institutionInstitut für Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften; Universität Potsdam; Potsdam Germanyen
dc.contributor.institutionInstitut für Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften; Universität Potsdam; Potsdam Germanyen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften; Universität München; Munich Germanyen
dc.contributor.institutionBuilding and Housing Research Center; Tehran Iranen
kaust.authorZielke, Olafen
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