Novel Microbial Electrochemical Technologies and Microorganisms for Power Generation and Desalination

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/344068
Title:
Novel Microbial Electrochemical Technologies and Microorganisms for Power Generation and Desalination
Authors:
Chehab, Noura A. ( 0000-0002-5197-9517 )
Abstract:
Global increases in water demand and decreases in both the quantity and quality of fresh water resources have served as the major driving forces to develop sustainable use of water resources. One viable alternative is to explore non-traditional (impaired quality) water sources such as wastewater and seawater. The current paradigm for wastewater treatment is based on technologies that are energy intensive and fail to recover the potential resources (water and energy) in wastewater. Also, conventional desalination technologies like reverse osmosis (RO) are energy intensive. Therefore, there is a need for the development of sustainable wastewater treatment and desalination technologies for practical applications. Processes based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold promise for the treatment of wastewater with recovery of the inherent energy, and MDCs could be used for both desalination of seawater and energy recovery. METs use anaerobic bacteria, referred to as exoelectrogens, that are capable of transferring electrons exogenously to convert soluble organic matter present in the wastewater directly into an electrical current to produce electrical power (MFC and MDC) or biogas (MEC). In my dissertation, I investigated the three types of METs mentioned above to: 1) have a better insight on the effect of 4 oxygen intrusion on the microbial community structure and performance of air-cathode MFCs; 2) improve the desalination efficiency of air-cathode MDCs using ion exchange resins (IXRs); and 3) enrich for extremophilic exoelectrogens from the Red Sea brine pool using MECs. The findings from these studies can shape further research aimed at developing more efficient air-cathode MFCs for practical applications, a more efficient integrated IXRMDC configuration that can be used as a pre-treatment to RO, and exploring extreme environments as a source of extremophilic exoelectrogens for niche-specific applications of METs.
Advisors:
Saikaly, Pascal E.
Committee Member:
Leikens, Trove; Stingl, Uli; Logan, Bruce; Amy, Gary L.
KAUST Department:
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Program:
Environmental Science and Engineering
Issue Date:
Dec-2014
Type:
Dissertation
Appears in Collections:
Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Dissertations; Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.advisorSaikaly, Pascal E.en
dc.contributor.authorChehab, Noura A.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-02-03T08:12:54Z-
dc.date.available2015-02-03T08:12:54Z-
dc.date.issued2014-12en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/344068en
dc.description.abstractGlobal increases in water demand and decreases in both the quantity and quality of fresh water resources have served as the major driving forces to develop sustainable use of water resources. One viable alternative is to explore non-traditional (impaired quality) water sources such as wastewater and seawater. The current paradigm for wastewater treatment is based on technologies that are energy intensive and fail to recover the potential resources (water and energy) in wastewater. Also, conventional desalination technologies like reverse osmosis (RO) are energy intensive. Therefore, there is a need for the development of sustainable wastewater treatment and desalination technologies for practical applications. Processes based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold promise for the treatment of wastewater with recovery of the inherent energy, and MDCs could be used for both desalination of seawater and energy recovery. METs use anaerobic bacteria, referred to as exoelectrogens, that are capable of transferring electrons exogenously to convert soluble organic matter present in the wastewater directly into an electrical current to produce electrical power (MFC and MDC) or biogas (MEC). In my dissertation, I investigated the three types of METs mentioned above to: 1) have a better insight on the effect of 4 oxygen intrusion on the microbial community structure and performance of air-cathode MFCs; 2) improve the desalination efficiency of air-cathode MDCs using ion exchange resins (IXRs); and 3) enrich for extremophilic exoelectrogens from the Red Sea brine pool using MECs. The findings from these studies can shape further research aimed at developing more efficient air-cathode MFCs for practical applications, a more efficient integrated IXRMDC configuration that can be used as a pre-treatment to RO, and exploring extreme environments as a source of extremophilic exoelectrogens for niche-specific applications of METs.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.subjectMicrobial Fuel Cellsen
dc.subjectMicrobial Desalination Cellsen
dc.subjectDesalinationen
dc.subjectExoelectrogensen
dc.subjectMicrobial Electrolysis Cellsen
dc.subjectWater Reuseen
dc.titleNovel Microbial Electrochemical Technologies and Microorganisms for Power Generation and Desalinationen
dc.typeDissertationen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
thesis.degree.grantorKing Abdullah University of Science and Technologyen_GB
dc.contributor.committeememberLeikens, Troveen
dc.contributor.committeememberStingl, Ulien
dc.contributor.committeememberLogan, Bruceen
dc.contributor.committeememberAmy, Gary L.en
thesis.degree.disciplineEnvironmental Science and Engineeringen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.person.id101795en
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