Vertical Distribution of Daily Migrating Mesopelagic Fish in Respect to Nocturnal Lights

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/334480
Title:
Vertical Distribution of Daily Migrating Mesopelagic Fish in Respect to Nocturnal Lights
Authors:
Prihartato, Perdana ( 0000-0002-9393-5125 )
Abstract:
The nighttime distribution of vertically migrating mesopelagic fish in relation to nocturnal light was studied during a circumglobal survey, in the Red Sea, and in a fjord at high latitude. The study was based on data derived from ship borne echo sounders (circumglobal and the Red Sea) as well as using upward looking echo sounders mounted on the bottom (Masfjorden, Norway). We also applied a numerical model for analyzing diel vertical migration patterns. The effect of the lunar cycle was the focus in studies at low latitudes, while seasonal changes in nocturnal light climate was in focus at high latitude. Lunar phase significantly affected the distribution of mesopelagic fish at the global scale and in the Red Sea. During nights near full moon, scattering layers of mesopelagic fish distributed deeper than during darker phases of the moon. At high latitude, mesopelagic fish switched its behavior along with seasonal changes in nocturnal lights. In autumn, the population of the studied fish (Maurolicus mueleri) formed separated layers. Juveniles performed normal diel vertical migration followed by midnight sinking, with midnight sinking mainly related to temperature minima and also for avoiding predators. Meanwhile the adults did not migrate vertically, reducing foraging but increasing the adult survival. From late winter to mid-Spring, interrupted ascents behavior was noted in the afternoon. Predator avoidance, satiation, and finding temperature optimum might be the reason behind interrupted ascents. At lighter nights in mid-summer, M. muelleri took on schooling behavior, likely as an anti-predator behavior permitting access to the upper waters in the absence of darkness.
Advisors:
Kaartvedt, Stein
Committee Member:
Hoteit, Ibrahim ( 0000-0002-3751-4393 ) ; Irigoien, Xabier ( 0000-0002-5411-6741 ) ; Giske, Jarl
KAUST Department:
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Program:
Marine Science
Issue Date:
Dec-2014
Type:
Dissertation
Appears in Collections:
Marine Science Program; Dissertations; Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.advisorKaartvedt, Steinen
dc.contributor.authorPrihartato, Perdanaen
dc.date.accessioned2014-11-11T12:34:07Z-
dc.date.available2014-11-11T12:34:07Z-
dc.date.issued2014-12en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/334480en
dc.description.abstractThe nighttime distribution of vertically migrating mesopelagic fish in relation to nocturnal light was studied during a circumglobal survey, in the Red Sea, and in a fjord at high latitude. The study was based on data derived from ship borne echo sounders (circumglobal and the Red Sea) as well as using upward looking echo sounders mounted on the bottom (Masfjorden, Norway). We also applied a numerical model for analyzing diel vertical migration patterns. The effect of the lunar cycle was the focus in studies at low latitudes, while seasonal changes in nocturnal light climate was in focus at high latitude. Lunar phase significantly affected the distribution of mesopelagic fish at the global scale and in the Red Sea. During nights near full moon, scattering layers of mesopelagic fish distributed deeper than during darker phases of the moon. At high latitude, mesopelagic fish switched its behavior along with seasonal changes in nocturnal lights. In autumn, the population of the studied fish (Maurolicus mueleri) formed separated layers. Juveniles performed normal diel vertical migration followed by midnight sinking, with midnight sinking mainly related to temperature minima and also for avoiding predators. Meanwhile the adults did not migrate vertically, reducing foraging but increasing the adult survival. From late winter to mid-Spring, interrupted ascents behavior was noted in the afternoon. Predator avoidance, satiation, and finding temperature optimum might be the reason behind interrupted ascents. At lighter nights in mid-summer, M. muelleri took on schooling behavior, likely as an anti-predator behavior permitting access to the upper waters in the absence of darkness.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.subjectMesopelagic Fishen
dc.subjectUnderwater Acousticen
dc.subjectDynamic Modelingen
dc.subjectNoctournal Lightsen
dc.subjectDiel Vertical Migrationen
dc.titleVertical Distribution of Daily Migrating Mesopelagic Fish in Respect to Nocturnal Lightsen
dc.typeDissertationen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
thesis.degree.grantorKing Abdullah University of Science and Technologyen_GB
dc.contributor.committeememberHoteit, Ibrahimen
dc.contributor.committeememberIrigoien, Xabieren
dc.contributor.committeememberGiske, Jarlen
thesis.degree.disciplineMarine Scienceen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.person.id101710en
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