Disappearing scales in carps: Re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/325332
Title:
Disappearing scales in carps: Re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation
Authors:
Casas, Laura; Szűcs, Réka; Vij, Shubha; Goh, Chin Heng; Kathiresan, Purushothaman; Németh, Sándor; Jeney, Zsigmond; Bercsényi, Miklós; Orbán, László
Abstract:
The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude x nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dosedependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation. 2013 Casas et al.
KAUST Department:
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Casas L, Szűcs R, Vij S, Goh CH, Kathiresan P, et al. (2013) Disappearing Scales in Carps: Re-Visiting Kirpichnikov's Model on the Genetics of Scale Pattern Formation. PLoS ONE 8: e83327. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083327.
Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Journal:
PLoS ONE
Issue Date:
30-Dec-2013
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0083327
PubMed ID:
24386179
PubMed Central ID:
PMC3875451
Type:
Article
ISSN:
19326203
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorCasas, Lauraen
dc.contributor.authorSzűcs, Rékaen
dc.contributor.authorVij, Shubhaen
dc.contributor.authorGoh, Chin Hengen
dc.contributor.authorKathiresan, Purushothamanen
dc.contributor.authorNémeth, Sándoren
dc.contributor.authorJeney, Zsigmonden
dc.contributor.authorBercsényi, Miklósen
dc.contributor.authorOrbán, Lászlóen
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:47:29Zen
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:47:29Zen
dc.date.issued2013-12-30en
dc.identifier.citationCasas L, Szűcs R, Vij S, Goh CH, Kathiresan P, et al. (2013) Disappearing Scales in Carps: Re-Visiting Kirpichnikov's Model on the Genetics of Scale Pattern Formation. PLoS ONE 8: e83327. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083327.en
dc.identifier.issn19326203en
dc.identifier.pmid24386179en
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0083327en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325332en
dc.description.abstractThe body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude x nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dosedependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation. 2013 Casas et al.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.titleDisappearing scales in carps: Re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formationen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalPLoS ONEen
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3875451en
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionReproductive Genomics Group, Strategic Research Program, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singaporeen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Animal Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Georgikon Faculty, University of Pannonia, Keszthely, Hungaryen
dc.contributor.institutionFish Facility, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore, Singaporeen
dc.contributor.institutionResearch Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation, Szarvas, Hungaryen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singaporeen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en

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