Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/325321
Title:
Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes
Authors:
Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Thums, Michele; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Furby, Kathryn A.; Berumen, Michael L. ( 0000-0003-2463-2742 )
Abstract:
Background:Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms.Methodology/Principal Findings:This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19-100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance.Conclusions/Significance:Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of host anemones to cope with rising sea temperatures associated with climate change. © 2013 Hobbs et al.
KAUST Department:
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Hobbs J-PA, Frisch AJ, Ford BM, Thums M, Saenz-Agudelo P, et al. (2013) Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes. PLoS ONE 8: e70966. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.
Publisher:
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Journal:
PLoS ONE
Issue Date:
8-Aug-2013
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0070966
PubMed ID:
23951056
PubMed Central ID:
PMC3738586
Type:
Article
ISSN:
19326203
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorHobbs, Jean-Paul A.en
dc.contributor.authorFrisch, Ashley J.en
dc.contributor.authorFord, Benjamin M.en
dc.contributor.authorThums, Micheleen
dc.contributor.authorSaenz Agudelo, Pabloen
dc.contributor.authorFurby, Kathryn A.en
dc.contributor.authorBerumen, Michael L.en
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:46:51Zen
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:46:51Zen
dc.date.issued2013-08-08en
dc.identifier.citationHobbs J-PA, Frisch AJ, Ford BM, Thums M, Saenz-Agudelo P, et al. (2013) Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes. PLoS ONE 8: e70966. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.en
dc.identifier.issn19326203en
dc.identifier.pmid23951056en
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0070966en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325321en
dc.description.abstractBackground:Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms.Methodology/Principal Findings:This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19-100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance.Conclusions/Significance:Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of host anemones to cope with rising sea temperatures associated with climate change. © 2013 Hobbs et al.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)en
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to PLoS ONEen
dc.subjectaccuracyen
dc.subjectbleachingen
dc.subjectcontrolled studyen
dc.subjectcoralen
dc.subjectenvironmental impacten
dc.subjectenvironmental monitoringen
dc.subjectfishen
dc.subjectgeographic distributionen
dc.subjecthabitat structureen
dc.subjectpopulation abundanceen
dc.subjectpredictionen
dc.subjectsea anemoneen
dc.subjectspecies differenceen
dc.subjecttaxonomic identificationen
dc.subjecttemperature sensitivityen
dc.subjectwater temperatureen
dc.subjectAnemoneen
dc.subjectAnthozoaen
dc.subjectCoral Reefsen
dc.subjectFishesen
dc.subjectGlobal Warmingen
dc.subjectIndian Oceanen
dc.subjectPacific Oceanen
dc.subjectSymbiosisen
dc.subjectTemperatureen
dc.titleTaxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalPLoS ONEen
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3738586en
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionThe Oceans Institute and School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionAustralian Institute of Marine Science, The Oceans Institute, Perth, Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionAustralian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Environmental Systems Engineering and The Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionMarine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionBiology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United Statesen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorSaenz Agudelo, Pabloen
kaust.authorBerumen, Michael L.en

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