Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/325308
Title:
Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area
Authors:
Campbell, Stuart J.; Hoey, Andrew; Maynard, Jeffrey; Kartawijaya, Tasrif; Cinner, Joshua; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Baird, Andrew H.
Abstract:
The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas) to assess levels of compliance following the 2005 rezoning of the government-controlled Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. Four years after the rezoning awareness of fishing regulations was high amongst local fishers, ranging from 79.5±7.9 (SE) % for spatial restrictions to 97.7±1.2% for bans on the use of poisons. Despite this high awareness and strong compliance with gear restrictions, compliance with spatial restrictions was weak. In the four years following the rezoning reef fish biomass declined across all zones within KNP, with >50% reduction within the no-take Core and Protection Zones. These declines were primarily driven by decreases in the biomass of groups targeted by local fishers; planktivores, herbivores, piscivores, and invertivores. These declines in fish biomass were not driven by changes in habitat quality; coral cover increased in all zones, possibly as a result of a shift in fishing gears from those which can damage reefs (i.e., nets) to those which cause little direct damage (i.e., handlines and spears). Direct observations of fishing activities in 2009 revealed there was limited variation in fishing effort between zones in which fishing was allowed or prohibited. The apparent willingness of the KNP communities to comply with gear restrictions, but not spatial restrictions is difficult to explain and highlights the complexities of the social and economic dynamics that influence the ecological success of marine protected areas. Clearly the increased and high awareness of fishery restrictions following the rezoning is a positive step. The challenge now is to understand and foster the conditions that may facilitate compliance with spatial restrictions within KNP and marine parks worldwide. © 2012 Campbell et al.
KAUST Department:
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Campbell SJ, Hoey AS, Maynard J, Kartawijaya T, Cinner J, et al. (2012) Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area. PLoS ONE 7: e50074. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050074.
Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Journal:
PLoS ONE
Issue Date:
30-Nov-2012
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0050074
PubMed ID:
23226237
PubMed Central ID:
PMC3511441
Type:
Article
ISSN:
19326203
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorCampbell, Stuart J.en
dc.contributor.authorHoey, Andrewen
dc.contributor.authorMaynard, Jeffreyen
dc.contributor.authorKartawijaya, Tasrifen
dc.contributor.authorCinner, Joshuaen
dc.contributor.authorGraham, Nicholas A. J.en
dc.contributor.authorBaird, Andrew H.en
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:46:15Zen
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:46:15Zen
dc.date.issued2012-11-30en
dc.identifier.citationCampbell SJ, Hoey AS, Maynard J, Kartawijaya T, Cinner J, et al. (2012) Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area. PLoS ONE 7: e50074. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050074.en
dc.identifier.issn19326203en
dc.identifier.pmid23226237en
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0050074en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325308en
dc.description.abstractThe effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas) to assess levels of compliance following the 2005 rezoning of the government-controlled Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. Four years after the rezoning awareness of fishing regulations was high amongst local fishers, ranging from 79.5±7.9 (SE) % for spatial restrictions to 97.7±1.2% for bans on the use of poisons. Despite this high awareness and strong compliance with gear restrictions, compliance with spatial restrictions was weak. In the four years following the rezoning reef fish biomass declined across all zones within KNP, with >50% reduction within the no-take Core and Protection Zones. These declines were primarily driven by decreases in the biomass of groups targeted by local fishers; planktivores, herbivores, piscivores, and invertivores. These declines in fish biomass were not driven by changes in habitat quality; coral cover increased in all zones, possibly as a result of a shift in fishing gears from those which can damage reefs (i.e., nets) to those which cause little direct damage (i.e., handlines and spears). Direct observations of fishing activities in 2009 revealed there was limited variation in fishing effort between zones in which fishing was allowed or prohibited. The apparent willingness of the KNP communities to comply with gear restrictions, but not spatial restrictions is difficult to explain and highlights the complexities of the social and economic dynamics that influence the ecological success of marine protected areas. Clearly the increased and high awareness of fishery restrictions following the rezoning is a positive step. The challenge now is to understand and foster the conditions that may facilitate compliance with spatial restrictions within KNP and marine parks worldwide. © 2012 Campbell et al.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to PLoS ONEen
dc.subjectanalysis of varianceen
dc.subjectbenthosen
dc.subjectbiomassen
dc.subjectcompliance (physical)en
dc.subjectdynamicsen
dc.subjectenvironmental monitoringen
dc.subjectenvironmental protectionen
dc.subjectfishingen
dc.subjectgeographic distributionen
dc.subjectgovernmenten
dc.subjecthabitat qualityen
dc.subjectherbivoreen
dc.subjectIndonesiaen
dc.subjectmaricultureen
dc.subjectmarine environmenten
dc.subjectplanktivoreen
dc.subjectsocioeconomicsen
dc.subjectAnthozoaen
dc.subjectBiomassen
dc.subjectConservation of Natural Resourcesen
dc.subjectCoral Reefsen
dc.subjectEcosystemen
dc.subjectFishesen
dc.subjectGovernmenten
dc.subjectIndonesiaen
dc.subjectLaw Enforcementen
dc.subjectAnthozoaen
dc.titleWeak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Areaen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalPLoS ONEen
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3511441en
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionMarine Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bogor, West Java, Indonesiaen
dc.contributor.institutionARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionLe Centre de Recherches Insulaires et Observatoire de l'Environment, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Moorea, French Polynesiaen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorHoey, Andrewen

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