The Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermis

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/325307
Title:
The Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermis
Authors:
Staff, Lee; Hurd, Patricia; Reale, Lara; Seoighe, Cathal; Rockwood, Alyn; Gehring, Christoph A. ( 0000-0003-4355-4591 )
Abstract:
The quest for the discovery of mathematical principles that underlie biological phenomena is ancient and ongoing. We present a geometric analysis of the complex interdigitated pavement cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) adaxial epidermis with a view to discovering some geometric characteristics that may govern the formation of this tissue. More than 2,400 pavement cells from 10, 17 and 24 day old leaves were analyzed. These interdigitated cells revealed a number of geometric properties that remained constant across the three age groups. In particular, the number of digits per cell rarely exceeded 15, irrespective of cell area. Digit numbers per 100 ?m2 cell area reduce with age and as cell area increases, suggesting early developmental programming of digits. Cell shape proportions as defined by length:width ratios were highly conserved over time independent of the size and, interestingly, both the mean and the medians were close to the golden ratio 1.618034. With maturity, the cell area:perimeter ratios increased from a mean of 2.0 to 2.4. Shape properties as defined by the medial axis transform (MAT) were calculated and revealed that branch points along the MAT typically comprise one large and two small angles. These showed consistency across the developmental stages considered here at 140° (± 5°) for the largest angles and 110° (± 5°) for the smaller angles. Voronoi diagram analyses of stomatal center coordinates revealed that giant pavement cells (?500 ?m2) tend to be arranged along Voronoi boundaries suggesting that they could function as a scaffold of the epidermis. In addition, we propose that pavement cells have a role in spacing and positioning of the stomata in the growing leaf and that they do so by growing within the limits of a set of 'geometrical rules'. © 2012 Staff et al.
KAUST Department:
Visual Computing Center (VCC); Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Citation:
Staff L, Hurd P, Reale L, Seoighe C, Rockwood A, et al. (2012) The Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermis. PLoS ONE 7: e43546. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043546.
Publisher:
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Journal:
PLoS ONE
Issue Date:
11-Sep-2012
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0043546
PubMed ID:
22984433
PubMed Central ID:
PMC3439452
Type:
Article
ISSN:
19326203
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Visual Computing Center (VCC); Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorStaff, Leeen
dc.contributor.authorHurd, Patriciaen
dc.contributor.authorReale, Laraen
dc.contributor.authorSeoighe, Cathalen
dc.contributor.authorRockwood, Alynen
dc.contributor.authorGehring, Christoph A.en
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:46:12Zen
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:46:12Zen
dc.date.issued2012-09-11en
dc.identifier.citationStaff L, Hurd P, Reale L, Seoighe C, Rockwood A, et al. (2012) The Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermis. PLoS ONE 7: e43546. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043546.en
dc.identifier.issn19326203en
dc.identifier.pmid22984433en
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0043546en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325307en
dc.description.abstractThe quest for the discovery of mathematical principles that underlie biological phenomena is ancient and ongoing. We present a geometric analysis of the complex interdigitated pavement cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) adaxial epidermis with a view to discovering some geometric characteristics that may govern the formation of this tissue. More than 2,400 pavement cells from 10, 17 and 24 day old leaves were analyzed. These interdigitated cells revealed a number of geometric properties that remained constant across the three age groups. In particular, the number of digits per cell rarely exceeded 15, irrespective of cell area. Digit numbers per 100 ?m2 cell area reduce with age and as cell area increases, suggesting early developmental programming of digits. Cell shape proportions as defined by length:width ratios were highly conserved over time independent of the size and, interestingly, both the mean and the medians were close to the golden ratio 1.618034. With maturity, the cell area:perimeter ratios increased from a mean of 2.0 to 2.4. Shape properties as defined by the medial axis transform (MAT) were calculated and revealed that branch points along the MAT typically comprise one large and two small angles. These showed consistency across the developmental stages considered here at 140° (± 5°) for the largest angles and 110° (± 5°) for the smaller angles. Voronoi diagram analyses of stomatal center coordinates revealed that giant pavement cells (?500 ?m2) tend to be arranged along Voronoi boundaries suggesting that they could function as a scaffold of the epidermis. In addition, we propose that pavement cells have a role in spacing and positioning of the stomata in the growing leaf and that they do so by growing within the limits of a set of 'geometrical rules'. © 2012 Staff et al.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)en
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to PLoS ONEen
dc.subjectArabidopsisen
dc.subjectcell differentiationen
dc.subjectcell divisionen
dc.subjectcell maturationen
dc.subjectcell shapeen
dc.subjectcell sizeen
dc.subjectcell surfaceen
dc.subjectcellular distributionen
dc.subjectcontrolled studyen
dc.subjectdevelopmental stageen
dc.subjectgeometryen
dc.subjectgiant cellen
dc.subjectleaf developmenten
dc.subjectleaf growthen
dc.subjectplant ageen
dc.subjectplant epidermis cellen
dc.subjectplant leafen
dc.subjectplant stomaen
dc.subjectArabidopsisen
dc.subjectCell Differentiationen
dc.subjectCell Divisionen
dc.subjectCell Shapeen
dc.subjectPlant Epidermisen
dc.subjectPlant Leavesen
dc.subjectPlant Stomataen
dc.subjectArabidopsis thalianaen
dc.titleThe Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermisen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentVisual Computing Center (VCC)en
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.identifier.journalPLoS ONEen
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3439452en
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italyen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Mathematics, Statistics and Applied Mathematics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Irelanden
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorGehring, Christoph A.en
kaust.authorStaff, Leeen
kaust.authorHurd, Patriciaen
kaust.authorRockwood, Alynen

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