Surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered waters

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/325236
Title:
Surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered waters
Authors:
Solberg, Ingrid; Kaartvedt, Stein ( 0000-0002-8793-2948 )
Abstract:
Upward-facing echosounders that provided continuous, long-term measurements were applied to address the surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) throughout an entire winter in a 150-m-deep Norwegian fjord. During ice-free conditions, the sprat surfaced and released gas bubbles at night with an estimated surfacing rate of 3.5 times per fish day-1. The vertical swimming speeds during surfacing were considerably higher (~10 times) than during diel vertical migrations, especially when returning from the surface, and particularly when the fjord was not ice covered. The sprat released gas a few hours after surfacing, suggesting that the sprat gulped atmospheric air during its excursions to the surface. While the surface activity increased after the fjord became ice covered, the records of gas release decreased sharply. The under-ice fish then displayed a behavior interpreted as "searching for the surface" by repeatedly ascending toward the ice, apparently with limited success of filling the swim bladder. This interpretation was supported by lower acoustic target strength in ice-covered waters. The frequent surfacing behavior demonstrated in this study indicates that gulping of atmospheric air is an important element in the life of sprat. While at least part of the population endured overwintering in the ice-covered habitat, ice covering may constrain those physostome fishes that lack a gas-generating gland in ways that remain to be established. 2013 The Author(s).
KAUST Department:
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Solberg I, Kaartvedt S (2013) Surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered waters. Marine Biology 161: 285-296. doi:10.1007/s00227-013-2334-1.
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Journal:
Marine Biology
Issue Date:
4-Oct-2013
DOI:
10.1007/s00227-013-2334-1
PubMed ID:
24489410
PubMed Central ID:
PMC3901932
Type:
Article
ISSN:
00253162
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSolberg, Ingriden
dc.contributor.authorKaartvedt, Steinen
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:41:23Z-
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:41:23Z-
dc.date.issued2013-10-4en
dc.identifier.citationSolberg I, Kaartvedt S (2013) Surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered waters. Marine Biology 161: 285-296. doi:10.1007/s00227-013-2334-1.en
dc.identifier.issn00253162en
dc.identifier.pmid24489410en
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00227-013-2334-1en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325236en
dc.description.abstractUpward-facing echosounders that provided continuous, long-term measurements were applied to address the surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) throughout an entire winter in a 150-m-deep Norwegian fjord. During ice-free conditions, the sprat surfaced and released gas bubbles at night with an estimated surfacing rate of 3.5 times per fish day-1. The vertical swimming speeds during surfacing were considerably higher (~10 times) than during diel vertical migrations, especially when returning from the surface, and particularly when the fjord was not ice covered. The sprat released gas a few hours after surfacing, suggesting that the sprat gulped atmospheric air during its excursions to the surface. While the surface activity increased after the fjord became ice covered, the records of gas release decreased sharply. The under-ice fish then displayed a behavior interpreted as "searching for the surface" by repeatedly ascending toward the ice, apparently with limited success of filling the swim bladder. This interpretation was supported by lower acoustic target strength in ice-covered waters. The frequent surfacing behavior demonstrated in this study indicates that gulping of atmospheric air is an important element in the life of sprat. While at least part of the population endured overwintering in the ice-covered habitat, ice covering may constrain those physostome fishes that lack a gas-generating gland in ways that remain to be established. 2013 The Author(s).en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherSpringer Berlin Heidelbergen
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2013en
dc.rightsOpen AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Marine Biologyen
dc.subjectatmospheric gasen
dc.subjectclupeoiden
dc.subjectdiel variationen
dc.subjectecho sounderen
dc.subjectfjorden
dc.subjectgas exchangeen
dc.subjecthabitat typeen
dc.subjectice coveren
dc.subjectice free corridoren
dc.subjectoverwinteringen
dc.subjectswimming behavioren
dc.subjectvertical migrationen
dc.subjectNorwayen
dc.titleSurfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered watersen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalMarine Biologyen
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3901932en
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norwayen
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)en
kaust.authorSolberg, Ingriden
kaust.authorKaartvedt, Steinen
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