Nano Antenna Integrated Diode (Rectenna) For Infrared Energy Harvesting

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/268872
Title:
Nano Antenna Integrated Diode (Rectenna) For Infrared Energy Harvesting
Authors:
Gadalla, Mena N.
Abstract:
In this work full parametric analysis of nano antennas is presented. To begin with, optical or electronic properties of noble metals such as gold and copper were studied in details to get a clear understanding of their reaction to an incident electromagnetic wave. Complex frequency dependent dielectric functions indicated that in THz metals acts as a dielectric with significant absorption. Simultaneous optimization of the length and the bow angle of a bow-tie antenna resulted in relative electric field intensity enhancement of 8 orders of magnitude for 0.5nm gap and 4 orders of magnitude for 50nm around 28THz resonance frequency. These results are at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than the published optical antennas. Physical reasons behind field localization and intensity enhancement  are  discussed  in  details.  The  solution  of  Maxwell’s  equations  at   the  interface   between metallic nano antenna and air is also present in this piece of research. The derived dispersion relation of surface plasmons shows momentum matching at 28.3 THz between free propagating electromagnetic fields’ modes in air and localized modes at the interface. Consequently, Propagating electromagnetic waves are ensured to couple to localized surface propagating modes producing filed enhancement. The integrated 𝑆𝑖𝑂􏱤 matching section is theoretically proven to increase transmission to substrate to 75% (compared to 40% without it) which in turn improves the coupled power by 40 times. Nano antennas were fabricated in house using Electron beam lithography with a precise gap of 50nm. In addition, THz diode was designed, fabricated and integrated to the nano antennas to rectify the enhanced THz signal. The integration of the nano diode required a precise overlap of the two arms of the antenna in the rage of 100nm. In order to overcome two arms overlap fabrication challenges, three layer alignment technique was used to produce precise overlap.The THz rectifier was electrically tested and shown high sensitivity and rectification ability without any bias. Finally, nano antenna integrated diode is under optical testing using   a   10.6μm   𝐶𝑜2 laser at Electro-Optics Lab, Prince Sultan Advanced Technologies Research Institute (PSATRI), King Saud University due to the unavailability of the measurement setup in KAUST.
Advisors:
Shamim, Atif ( 0000-0002-4207-4740 )
Committee Member:
Fratalocchi, Andrea; Ooi, Boon S. ( 0000-0001-9606-5578 )
KAUST Department:
Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division
Program:
Electrical Engineering
Issue Date:
Jan-2013
Type:
Thesis
Appears in Collections:
Theses; Electrical Engineering Program; Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.advisorShamim, Atifen
dc.contributor.authorGadalla, Mena N.en
dc.date.accessioned2013-02-10T08:05:49Z-
dc.date.available2013-02-10T08:05:49Z-
dc.date.issued2013-01en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/268872en
dc.description.abstractIn this work full parametric analysis of nano antennas is presented. To begin with, optical or electronic properties of noble metals such as gold and copper were studied in details to get a clear understanding of their reaction to an incident electromagnetic wave. Complex frequency dependent dielectric functions indicated that in THz metals acts as a dielectric with significant absorption. Simultaneous optimization of the length and the bow angle of a bow-tie antenna resulted in relative electric field intensity enhancement of 8 orders of magnitude for 0.5nm gap and 4 orders of magnitude for 50nm around 28THz resonance frequency. These results are at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than the published optical antennas. Physical reasons behind field localization and intensity enhancement  are  discussed  in  details.  The  solution  of  Maxwell’s  equations  at   the  interface   between metallic nano antenna and air is also present in this piece of research. The derived dispersion relation of surface plasmons shows momentum matching at 28.3 THz between free propagating electromagnetic fields’ modes in air and localized modes at the interface. Consequently, Propagating electromagnetic waves are ensured to couple to localized surface propagating modes producing filed enhancement. The integrated 𝑆𝑖𝑂􏱤 matching section is theoretically proven to increase transmission to substrate to 75% (compared to 40% without it) which in turn improves the coupled power by 40 times. Nano antennas were fabricated in house using Electron beam lithography with a precise gap of 50nm. In addition, THz diode was designed, fabricated and integrated to the nano antennas to rectify the enhanced THz signal. The integration of the nano diode required a precise overlap of the two arms of the antenna in the rage of 100nm. In order to overcome two arms overlap fabrication challenges, three layer alignment technique was used to produce precise overlap.The THz rectifier was electrically tested and shown high sensitivity and rectification ability without any bias. Finally, nano antenna integrated diode is under optical testing using   a   10.6μm   𝐶𝑜2 laser at Electro-Optics Lab, Prince Sultan Advanced Technologies Research Institute (PSATRI), King Saud University due to the unavailability of the measurement setup in KAUST.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.subjectNanoantennaen
dc.subjectnear filed enhancementen
dc.subjectRectennaen
dc.subjectInfrared Energyen
dc.subjectHarvesting Solar Energyen
dc.titleNano Antenna Integrated Diode (Rectenna) For Infrared Energy Harvestingen
dc.typeThesisen
dc.contributor.departmentComputer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Divisionen
thesis.degree.grantorKing Abdullah University of Science and Technologyen_GB
dc.contributor.committeememberFratalocchi, Andreaen
dc.contributor.committeememberOoi, Boon S.en
thesis.degree.disciplineElectrical Engineeringen
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen
dc.person.id118492en
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