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  • Polarization-State Modulation in Fano Resonant Graphene Metasurface Reflector

    Amin, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Omar; Farhat, Mohamed (Journal of Lightwave Technology, IEEE, 2021-04-06) [Article]
    Although Polarization Modulation offers a high spectral efficiency, it has been not exploited much in modern communication systems because of the involvement of high switching speeds and complexity of associated hardware. We propose a dynamically controllable graphene metasurface capable to switch the polarization state of incident THz waves in real-time. The metasurface is designed by patterning two-dimensional graphene sheets with Fano-resonant chiral unit cells. Since the reflectance spectrum is characterized with co and cross polarized fields that bear asymmetric Fano line-shapes, several combinations of linear and elliptical polarization states are observed in a narrowband spectrum. At a fixed frequency, the electrostatic tunability property of graphene allows to switch between different polarization states by varying the chemical potential between 500 and 700 meV. The polarization state modulation with the proposed chiral graphene based metasurface is applied to implement a quaternary modulated digital communication system. Full-wave simulation results show the strong possibility of polarization modulation in THz communication systems. Graphene metasurfaces on account of the high electron mobility and discrete Fermi levels offer high switching speeds and seamless integration with digital systems.
  • Simultaneous Detection and Mutation Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and co-infections of multiple respiratory viruses by Rapid field-deployable sequencing.

    Bi, Chongwei; Ramos Mandujano, Gerardo; Tian, Yeteng; Hala, Sharif; Xu, Jinna; Mfarrej, Sara; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Delicado, Estrella Nuñez; Alofi, Fadwa S; Khogeer, Asim; Hashem, Anwar M; Almontashiri, Naif A M; Pain, Arnab; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Li, Mo (Med (New York, N.Y.), Elsevier BV, 2021-04-06) [Article]
    BackgroundStrategies for monitoring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are crucial for combating the pandemic. Detection and mutation surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses require separate and complex workflows that rely on highly-specialized facilities, personnel, and reagents. To date, no method can rapidly diagnose multiple viral infections and determine variants in a high-throughput manner.MethodsWe describe a method for multiplex isothermal amplification-based sequencing and real-time analysis of multiple viral genomes, termed NIRVANA. It can simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, human adenovirus, and human coronavirus, and monitor mutations for up to 96 samples in real-time.FindingsNIRVANA showed high sensitivity and specificity for SARS-CoV-2 in 70 clinical samples with a detection limit of 20 viral RNA copies per μl of extracted nucleic acid. It also detected the influenza A co-infection in two samples. The variant analysis results of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples mirror the epidemiology of COVID-19. Additionally, NIRVANA could simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2 and PMMoV (an omnipresent virus and water quality indicator) in municipal wastewater samples.ConclusionsNIRVANA provides high-confidence detection of both SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and mutation surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on the fly. We expect it to offer a promising solution for rapid field-deployable detection and mutational surveillance of pandemic viruses.FundingM.L. is supported by KAUST Office of Sponsored Research (BAS/1/1080-01). This work is supported by KAUST Competitive Research Grant (URF/1/3412-01-01, M.L. and J.C.I.B.) and Universidad Catolica San Antonio de Murcia (J.C.I.B.). A.M.H. is supported by Saudi Ministry of Education (project 436).
  • High Performance Multivariate Geospatial Statistics on Manycore Systems

    Salvaña, Mary Lai O.; Abdulah, Sameh; Huang, Huang; Ltaief, Hatem; Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.; Keyes, David E. (IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE, 2021-04-06) [Article]
    Modeling and inferring spatial relationships and predicting missing values of environmental data are some of the main tasks of geospatial statisticians. These routine tasks are accomplished using multivariate geospatial models and the cokriging technique, which requires the evaluation of the expensive Gaussian log-likelihood function. This large-scale cokriging challenge provides a fertile ground for supercomputing implementations for the geospatial statistics community as it is paramount to scale computational capability to match the growth in environmental data. In this paper, we develop large-scale multivariate spatial modeling and inference on parallel hardware architectures. To tackle the increasing complexity in matrix operations and the massive concurrency in parallel systems, we leverage low-rank matrix approximation techniques with task-based programming models and schedule the asynchronous computational tasks using a dynamic runtime system. The proposed framework provides both the dense and approximated computations of the Gaussian log-likelihood function. It demonstrates accuracy robustness and performance scalability on a variety of computer systems. Using both synthetic and real datasets, the low-rank matrix approximation shows better performance compared to exact computation, while preserving the application requirements in both parameter estimation and prediction accuracy. We also propose a novel algorithm to assess the prediction accuracy after the online parameter estimation.
  • Simultaneous Detection and Mutation Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and co-infections of multiple respiratory viruses by Rapid field-deployable sequencing.

    Bi, Chongwei; Ramos Mandujano, Gerardo; Tian, Yeteng; Hala, Sharif; Xu, Jinna; Mfarrej, Sara; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Delicado, Estrella Nuñez; Alofi, Fadwa S; Khogeer, Asim; Hashem, Anwar M; Almontashiri, Naif A M; Pain, Arnab; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Li, Mo (Med (New York, N.Y.), Elsevier BV, 2021-04-06) [Article]
    BackgroundStrategies for monitoring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are crucial for combating the pandemic. Detection and mutation surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses require separate and complex workflows that rely on highly-specialized facilities, personnel, and reagents. To date, no method can rapidly diagnose multiple viral infections and determine variants in a high-throughput manner.MethodsWe describe a method for multiplex isothermal amplification-based sequencing and real-time analysis of multiple viral genomes, termed NIRVANA. It can simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, human adenovirus, and human coronavirus, and monitor mutations for up to 96 samples in real-time.FindingsNIRVANA showed high sensitivity and specificity for SARS-CoV-2 in 70 clinical samples with a detection limit of 20 viral RNA copies per μl of extracted nucleic acid. It also detected the influenza A co-infection in two samples. The variant analysis results of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples mirror the epidemiology of COVID-19. Additionally, NIRVANA could simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2 and PMMoV (an omnipresent virus and water quality indicator) in municipal wastewater samples.ConclusionsNIRVANA provides high-confidence detection of both SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and mutation surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on the fly. We expect it to offer a promising solution for rapid field-deployable detection and mutational surveillance of pandemic viruses.FundingM.L. is supported by KAUST Office of Sponsored Research (BAS/1/1080-01). This work is supported by KAUST Competitive Research Grant (URF/1/3412-01-01, M.L. and J.C.I.B.) and Universidad Catolica San Antonio de Murcia (J.C.I.B.). A.M.H. is supported by Saudi Ministry of Education (project 436).
  • Synthesis of gold(I)-trifluoromethyl complexes and their role in generating spectroscopic evidence for a gold(I)-difluorocarbene species.

    Nolan, Steven Patrick; Vanden Broeck, Sofie M P; Nelson, David J; Collado, Alba; Falivene, Laura; Cavallo, Luigi; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Van Hecke, Kristof; Nahra, Fady; Cazin, Catherine S J (Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), Wiley, 2021-04-06) [Article]
    Readily-prepared and bench-stable [Au(CF 3 )(NHC)] compounds were synthesized using new methodologies, starting from [Au(OH)(NHC)], [Au(Cl)(NHC)] or [Au(L)(NHC)]HF 2 precursors (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). The mechanism of formation of these species was investigated. Consequently, a new and straightforward strategy for the mild and selective cleavage of a single carbon-fluorine bond from [Au(CF 3 )(NHC)] complexes was attempted and found to be reversible in the presence of an additional nucleophilic fluoride source. This straightforward technique has led to the unprecedented spectroscopic observation of a gold(I)-NHC difluorocarbene species.

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